THE FOUR SPECIAL DEPUTIES
After the martyrdom of Imam Hasan Askari
(A.S.) the mantle of Imamate fell on the young shoulders of Imam Mahdi (A.S.).
Due to the serve restrictions imposed by
the reigning Caliph, Imam Mahdi (A.S.) was forced to conceal himself from the eyes of the
people. In the initial stages of the minor occultation, some very special and selected
people among the Shias had the permission to meet their master whenever the need arose.
They presented the problems of the Shias in the service of Imam who provided answers to
them and conveyed them back to the people.
Such selected people were called as special
representatives, deputies, doors of Imam etc. Four persons had the honour of acquiring
this elevated status and all of them hailed from and resided in Baghdad. Apart from them,
there were representatives in other cities also. The shias either conveyed their messages
to these representative or directely to the special ones for it to reach to the Imam.
These special deputies performed innumerable extraordinary feats in the minor occultation
which are preserved in different traditional and historical books.
(1) The First Deputy:-
Abu Amr Uthman Ibne Saeed Amri :
He was from the Bani Asad clan. Due to his
ancestral links he was called as Abu Amr but on the advise of Imam Hasan Askari (AS), he
changed his title from Abu Amr to Amravi. He was also addressed as Askari and some even
called him as "Sammaan" (oil merchant).
He was also famous as the representative of
Imam Ali Naqi (A.S.). The title of "Sammaan (oil merchant) itself is historical. He
used to deliver the wealth, possessions of Imam (A.S.) in an oil can (In order that the
intelligence personnel of the Government could not detect his activities, he posed himself
as a businessman on Imam (A.S.)'s order)
Till 254 A.H. he was the representative of
Imam Ali Naqi (A.S.) He (A.S.) used to say "Abu Amr is a
reliable and trustworthy person, whatever he narrates, its on my behalf and whatever he
conveys is in fact my message".
After the demise of Imam Ali Naqi (A.S.) in
254 A.H. he became the special representative of Imam Hasan Askari (A.S.) who used to say
"Abu Amr is a reliable and trustworthy person. He was relied
upon evey by the previous Imams and in my life as well as after my death, he is reliable
whatever he narrates is on my behalf and his messages are actually my messages".
Imam (A.S.) also says :
"Stand witness that Uthman bin Saeed
is my representative. His son, Mohammad Bin Uthman is Mahdi (A.S.)'s representative. when
a son (Hazra Mahdi (A.S.) was born to Imam Hasan Askari (A.S.), he ordered Abu Amr to
distribute ten thousand roties and ten thousand pieces of meat among the Bani Hashim and
also sacrifice sheep and goats for Aqeeqah.
In a congregation of forty reliable and
selected people of Imam Hasan Askari (A.S.) he introduced Imam Mahdi (A.S.) to them. He
mentioned about his Imamate and occultations. Then he emphasised about the representation
of Imam Mahdi (A.S.) by Usman bin Saeed, thus "You (all) accept whatever he says for
he is the represent-ative of your Imma and affairs are with him".
He participated in all the funeral
proceedings of Imam Hsan Askari (A.S.) and executed all orders issued unto him. In 260
A.H. after the martyrdom of Imam Hasan Askari (A.S.) he was appointed as the first special
deputy of Imam Mahdi (A.S.). for five years he held this auspicious position. Before his
death, on the order of Imam (A.S.) he appointed his son an Imam's representativ infront of
a group of honourable Shias and handed over all his responsibilities to him.
After the death Uthman Bin Saeed his sons
performed all the funeral proceeding and buried him in west of Baghdad.
Shaikh Toosi (A.R.) says that till 447 A.H.
people paid homage to him and read his Ziyarat as a pious and righteous person and also as
the foster brother of Imam Askari (A.S.) They also recognised him as the special
representative of Imam Mahdi (A.S.).
This shows that the extent to which hsi
ddeputyship was concealed that even after a passage of two hundred years, it was difficult
for the people to recognise him. He was a contemprary of the Abbaside Caliph, Motamid.
(2) The Second Special Representative:
Abu Jafar Mohammad Bin Uthman Bin Saeed
He succeded his father after the latter's
demise. Imam Hasan Askari (A.S.) himself had emphasised for his deputyship. In his Tawqee
(a signed letter) to Mohammad Bin Mahaziar, Imame Zamana (a.s) said about Mohammad bin
Uthman, thus: "May God Protect him, He was our trustworthy person even during his
father's life time. May God be pleased with him and his father and bless their souls. He
is the successor to his father and has taken his place. Whatever he says on our behalf,
are our quotes and he follows our orders dutiffully. May God help him. Deeply follow his
instuctions and seek our opinion through him".
In his Tawqee to Ishaq Ibn Yaqoob Imam
"May God be pleased
with Mohammad Bin Uthman and his father He is my confidnte and reliable man. His writings
are my writings."
He was the special representative of Imam
(A.S.) for approximately forty years. In the very first Tawqee which he received there was
a condolence message on the demise of his father. It's contents were as follows:
"We have come from
Allah and unto Him shall we return (Quran). We accept his orders and are satisfied with
His commands. Your father passed a decent life and faced a decent death. May God have
mercy upon him and enumerate him among His servants (Imams). He was always engrosed in
their work. He always strove unceasingly in those works which elevated him in front of God
and helped him gained aproximately to the Imam (A.S.) May God make him happy and condone
his sins. May God increase your rewards and accept your difficulties. You are grief
stricken, so are we, is death has affected us an much as it has affected you. May God make
him happier in that life. It was due to his sincerity and decency that he was honoured
with a son like you who has become his heir and successor.
My a God send mercies upon him I praise the
Almighty whose existence is clean from all indecencies of disbelief (and polytheism)
whatever God has been entrusted to you by him, He will help you to achieve it. He will
help you and grace you, for He is the Master, the Protector and the Sufficer,
Ibn Nooh narrates from the Abu Nasr, the
nephew of Abu Jafar that he had written many books, one of which was on jurisprudence. He
wrote whatever he had heard from Imam-e-Zamana (A.S.) and his father Usman. One of these
books was "Kital-ul-ashraban" which was passed on after his death to Husayn
Bin-Rooh and after him, probably to Ali Ibne-Mohammad Seymouri.
Shaykh Saduq (A.R.) narrates the following
tradition from Mohammad Ibne-Usman, "I swear by God, Saheb-ul-Amr (A.J.) comes to
Mecca every year to perform the rituals of Hajj He sees the people and recognises them but
htye do not recognise him even after seeing him".
Mohammad Bin Usman was once asked if he had
seen Imam-e-Zamana (A.S.). He answered "Yes", the last time that I saw him was
in the Holy Kaaba, praying "O Allah fulfil what you have promised Me", then I
saw him catchig the curtain of Mustajaar-adoor opposite to the main door of Kaaba and
praying "O Allah" take revenge of your enemies through me". Abu Ali, Abul
Hasan Ali Ibn Ahmed narrates, "One day Mohammad Ibn Uthman took me and showed his
grave and said "I will die on such day. I will be burried here and this tablet will
be with me" (the tablet was inscribed with some Quranic verses and the names of
When asked about the cause of showing his
grave, he replied "I have been ordered to finish all my duties and set things
A few years before his death whenever he
was asked about his successor he used to send them to "Husayn Bin Rauh", he
expired in the month of Jamadi-ul-Awwal, 305 A.H. He is buried alongside his respected
mother in Baghdad, near Kufa Gate Where he resided. He liver during the reign of Motamid,
Mukhtafi and Muqtadir, the Abbaside Kings.
(3) The Third Special Representatives:
He succeded Mohammad Bin Uthman, He was a
leading personality from the family of Nawbakht. Ali Ibn Mohammad narrates from his uncle
that I was sitting besides Mohammad Bin Uthman when he was in his death-bed and talking to
him. He says, Ibn-Rauh was sitting near his feet. At that moment, Mohammad BinUthman told
me. "I have been commanded to make a Will to Husayn Ibn-Rauh" I got up and made
Husayn to sit in my place and myself sat near Mohammad Bin Uthman's feet.
Mohammad Bin Uthman began making a Will
"Husayn Ibn Rauh Abu Jafar, Nawbakhti, is my heir and successor amongst you after me.
He is the medium and channel between you and Hazrat Saheb al Amr (A.J.) You refer to him
in your problems and rely on him in your affairs, I was ordered to convey this message and
I ' ve done my duty".
The First Tawqee received by Husayn Ibn
Rauh, was as follow:
"We know him (Husayn Ibn Rauh) May
Allah grant him goodness, his recognition and grace. We received his letter. He is our
reliable man He enjoys such a position near us with which he is bound to be happy. May
increase His obligations on him. Certainly, he a masterful and poweful person.
Praise be to the God who has no partner.
Blessings of Allah be on Mohammad (S.A.) and his progeny." Sunday 6th Shawwal 305
To appoint Husayn Ibn Rauh after Mohammad
Bin Uthman, had two basic reasons (1) This position was granted to only him who was
sincere to such an extent that if the Imam was behind him, he would not reveal his where
abouts even if cut into pieces. Husayn Ibn Rauh, was very sincere. (2) To remove the doubt
in some people's minds that only those who had blood relations or proximity with Mohammand
Bin Uthman stood the chance of gaining successorship. None could even imagine that Husayn
Ibn Rauh would bag that coveted status. Even the spies of Bani Abbas could not get whiff
of it because there were people who were very near to Mohammad Bin Uthman.
Everybody considered Husayn Ibn Rauh to be
a very knowledgeable person, whether friend or foe. He lived a life of dissimulation
(Taqiyyah). Many incidents concerning his discussion with the ruling kings are narrated.
He won the hearts of the people through his methods. Many debates are also narrated from
him and the source of all his knowledge is hte fountain of Ahle Bait's knowledge.
Therefore, after one debate, he said "Even if I am throuwn from the sky or torn in to
pieces by the vultures, I will not say a word of my own on the religion of God whatever, I
say, I have learnt from the Divine Proof, God's Peace andblessing be on Him".
Whatever he did was based only on the
instructins of Imam Mahdi (A.S.)
Abdu Sahl Nawbakht was asked as the special
representative and why not he (Abu Sahl) ? He replied, "The Imams knows better whom
to appoint. I have debates with the opponents of Shiaism, If I was knowing the wherebouts
of Imam (A.S.) and during a debate if If could not prove my point, I would reveal his
hiding place. But Abul Qasim is not like this If Imam was hiding behind him, he would
allow himself to be scissored into pieces but would not show his Imam to the
Husayn Ibn Rauh was Imam (A.S.)'s special
representative for about twenty one years. He expired in Shaban, 326 A.H. and is buried in
the courtyard of Ali Ibn Mohammad Nawbakth's house in Baghdad. He was a contemparory of
Muqtadir and Raazi, the Abbaside Kings.
(4) The fourth special representative Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Mohammad
He was appointed as the fourth special
deputy of Imam Mahdi (A.S.) after the demise of Husain Ibn Rauh. He is remembered as on of
companions of Imam Hasan Askari (A.S.) and the special representative of Imam Mahdi (A.S.)
in Baghdad. For three years, he held the coveted post of deputyship. Unlike the previous
deputies he could not perform any major task due to his truncated tenure. One of his extra
ordinary feats was his prediction of Ibn Babway's demise.
The last Tawqee from Imam (A.S.) received
by Ali Ibn Mohammad announced the termination of the period of minor occultation Its
contents are as follows :-
In the name of god the beneficient, the
O Ali Ibn Mohammad Seymori
May increase the reward of your brothers on account of the diffculties born by you. You
will die within six days. Regulate your affairs and sum them up. Do not make a will to
anybody. After you, this chain (of special deputyship) will end and it will mark the
beginning of the major occultation. Now, I will re-appear on divine command. But that will
be after a long time when the hearts of the people will become hardened and the world will
become full of injustice, tyanny and oppression. Yes ! there will be some who will claim
to be my special deputes. Whoever claims to consult me before the emergence of Sufyani and
the heavenly Voice, he is a deceiver and liar. There is no power and strength except that
of Allah, the Al-mighty the High."
This is the last letter received from Imam
(A.S.) in the minor occultation. After three years of deputyship, Ali Ibn Mohammad
Seymouri left this world in Sahaban, 329 A.H. He is buried on the Khalanji Highway near
Bab-ul-Mahool on the banks of the Abi Eqaab river. His last words were "For God is
the Affaif and He will himself execute it". He lived during the reign of Muttaqui,
the Abbaside Caliph.
For 69 years between 260 A.H. till 329 A.H.
four people acted as the medium between Imam (A.S.) and his followers. This duration is
called as the Minor occultation. Some people deem this duration to be 74 years. That is
because they calculate it from the bieth of Imam (A.S.) in 255 A.H. It is certain that the
Imam Mahdi (A.S.) did not shoulder the responsibility of Imamat in the life time of Imam
Hasan Askari (A.S.).
Therefore, there was no need for Imam
Mahadi (A.S.) to be in contact with the people directly, since his respected father was
executing it. Hence, the question of the commencement of minor occultation does not arise
right from the birth of Mahdi (A.S.).
Some Peculiarities About Special
1) The name of the special deputies were
not mentioned in the Tawqeaat. This was done in order to prevent the Abbaside king's from
knowing their names. Also, because this relationship was based on sheer trust and
reliability, there arose no particula need to mention the names.
2) Alawis were kept away from deputyship
and others were purposefully granted this status because the Alawis were clearly marked in
the society and were under strict surveillance and scrutiny of the Government.
3) All of the affairs of the deputies were
conducted in Baghdad for the followig reasons :-
a) At the time of Imam Hasan Askari
(A.S.)'s martyrdom, those people who had come from Qum to Sammarra, were told that
some-one would be appointed in Baghda so that they could give their offerings to him and
received Imam (A.S.) letter from him."
b) Their apparent involvement was in
business, therefore, they did not have hte time to go out of Baghdad.
c) These deputies were rarely engaged in
social work due to the follwing reasons (i) By indulging in social work one's identity
doesn't remains secret. And they did not intend to reveal themselves.
(ii) If they participated in social work,
they would be marked and become as special representative, while their aim was only to
pose as businessmen. This is the cause for the rare information about their lives. Even
historians have hardly mentioned anything about them. It is also possible that some
historians have documented their biographiles but these documents have been destroyed by
the enemies of Shiism.
4) They performed only those tasks which
were ordered unto them.
5) They were informed of the Hidden
knowledge only with the permission of Hazrat Vali-e-Asr (A.S.).
6) All the tawqees received during the time
of the four special deputies, had only one hand-writing and people were recognising it.
This similarity in writing proved that all these letters were from Imam (A.S.) and people
followed them diligently.
7) About the Tawqees one can say :-
a) They follow the pattern of traditions.
b) Tehy wre answer to questions.
d) They were coming about 2-3 days after
8) These deputies were keeping themeselves
concealed from public eyes and lived in dissimulation (Taqaiyyah). For example when Husayn
Ibn Rauh gave preference to the reigning caliph, on account of his dissimulation then
people prayed for him and the Government could not become aware of his deputyship.
9) It was not necessary that everybody
should have had direct contacts with the special representatives, they made their close
friends and intimates as the medium between themselves and the masses. For example,
Mohammad Ibn Husayn had appointed ten deputies in Baghdad to collect the offerings, amoung
them was Husayn Ibn Rauh.
The aims of Special representation can be
summed up in the following words : (i) To prepare the people for the major occultation and
habituate them to live with their Imam in concealment.
(ii) To take some steps in solving the
problems and reformation of the Shia Society.
Note :All references
can be found in "Kitab-ul-Ghaibah", of Shaykh Toosi and
of Ibn Babuwayh.