THE UMAYYADS' FAVORS
You will recognise easily the Umayyads' gifts for this man if you think of his two conditions; one before their state where he was mean and subservient, looking at the lice creeping on his garment 2 and his condition during their reign where they pulled him out of the mud of misery and clothed him with silk. 3 They made him button his cloths with silk and they clothed him with slender flax 4. They built him a palace in al-Aqeeq 5. They surrounded him with their charity and covered him with their gifts. They spread his mention and announced his name. They made him wali on Medina, the town of the prophet (s) 6and married him, during his rule, to Bissra bint Ghazwan bin Jabir bin Wahab al-Maziniya, the sister of the emir Otba bin Ghazwan 7 and he wouldn't dream of that or his imagination
1. Muslim, here, is a name if someone who collected the Hadith book called Sahih.
2. This was taken from Abu Jurayra's saying: I took a garment off my back and spread it between the Prophet and me while I was looking at the lice creeping on it.... It was mentioned by ABu Na'eemin his Hilyatul Awliya', vol. 1, p.p. 381.
3. Ibn Sa'd mentioned in his Tabaqat (Abu Hurayra's biography) from Wahab bin Kaysan, Qatada and al-Mugheera that Abu Hurayra put on silk cloths.
4. Al-Bukhari in his Sahih, vol, 4, p.p. 175, mentioned that Muhammad bin Sireen said: We wereat Abu Hurayra's and he was wearing two slender flax dresses.
5. He died in this place as mentioned by Ibn Hajr in his Issaba, Ibn Qutayba's Ma'arif and Ibn Sa'ad's Tabaqat.
6. Mentioned by Imam Ahmed in his Musnad, vol. 2, p.p. 430, narrated by Muhammed bin Ziyad, Ibn Qutayba in his Ma'arif, narrated by Abu Rafi' and imam Abu Ja'far al-Iskafi in his book Sharh an-Nahj al-Hameedi, vol, 1, p.p. 395, edition of Egypt.
7. He was an ally of the trible of Abd Sham. The caliph Omar (may Allah be please with him) made him leader during the Islamic conquests. He
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would ever think of that, because he strove to serve her barefooted just for feed.
Mudharib bin Jiz' said: 1"I was walking at night and there was a man exclaiming (Allahu Akbar-Allah is great). I followed him. I found that he was Abu Hurayra. I said: "What is this?" He said: "I am thanking Allah. I was employed by Bissra bint Ghazwan just for my feed. I led their sumpters when they rode and served them when they got down and now I became her husband. Now I ride and when I get down, she serves me. Before that, when she reached a plain, she got down and said: "I won't leave unless you make me porridge." Now when I reach the same place I say to her: "I won't leave unless you make me porridge." 2
He often said, during his emirate of Medina: "I grew up as an orphan. When I emigrated I was poor. I was employed by Bissra bint Ghazwan jus for feed. I led their sumpters when they rode and served them when they got down and now Allah has married me to her. Thanks to Allah, Who made the religion as basis and made Abu Hurayra imam." 3
Once he said: "I was employed by Bissra bint Ghazwan for my feed. She ordered me to ride erectly and to go barefooted. After that Allah made her my wife. I ordered her to ride erectly and to go barefooted." 4
One day he led people in prayer and when he finished he said loudly: "Praise be to Allah, Who made religion as basis and made
established the town of Basra and became its emir. He conquered many countries and was one of the famous Prophet's companions and one of the heroes. He died during the reign of Omar. But Abu Hurayra got married to his sister after a long time of his death. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in his book al-Issaba mentioned Bissra and Abu Hurayra's story with her. He said that she had employed him at the time of the Prophet, then he got married to her when Marwan entrusted him with the emirate of Medina during the reign of Mu'awiya.
1. Mentioned by Abul-Abbas as-Sarraj in his history and Ibn Hajr in his Issaba (biography of Abu Hurayra).
2. Mentioned by Abu Khuzayma and IbnHajr in his book al-Issaba.
3. Ibn Sa'd's Tabaqat, second part of vol. 4, p.p. 53.
4. Refer to Ibn Sa'd's Tabaqat, second part of vol. 4, p.p. 53.
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Abu Hurayra imam after he was an employee for Bissra bint Ghazwan for his feed and a sumpter to ride." 1
One day he ascended the minbar of the Prophet (s) and said: "Praise be to Allah, Who made me eat good food, wear silk cloths and marry me to Bissra bint Ghazwan after I was her employee for my feed. She made me carry her baggage and then I made her carry my baggage."2
THANKING THE FAVORS OF THE UMAYYADS
The Umayyads enslaved Abu Hurayra by their favours. They appropriated his hearing, sight and heart and made him tractable. So he was the media of their policies. He changed according to their tendencies. Sometimes he invented traditions to show their virtues and sometimes he fabricated traditions showing the virtues of the two caliphs; Abu Bakr and Omar according to the wish of Mu'awiya and his oppressive group. For they had political purposes against imam Ali and the Prophet's progeny (s), which would not be realised-as they thought-except by preferring the two caliphs. Hence he advanced in fabricating traditions, which we mentioned some of.
There were many traditions we didn't mention, for example, the tradition about making Abu Bakr emir of hajj in the ninth year of hijra, the year when sura of Bara'a was revealed to the Prophet (s), and the tradition saying that the angels talked with Omar.
The Umayyad policy of subduing the Hashimites required certifying and spreading these two traditions as possible as Mu'awiya and his assistants could. They did by any means they could until all Sunni books of Hadith (Sahih) mentioned them as true traditions.
Abu Hurayra, sometimes, cut off the traditions concerning Imam Ali to distort their meaning, like his saying: "I heard the Prophet saying: The sun hadn't been withheld or returned for
1. Refer to Abu Na'eem's Hilyatul-Awliya', vol. 1, p.p. 379.
2. Refer to Abu Na'eem, Hilyatul-Awliya', vol. 1, p.p. 384.
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anyone except for Prophet Usha' bin Noon (Joshua) when he walked towards Jerusalem at night." 1
And his saying: "When the Qur'anic verse (And warn your nearest relations) 26:214, was revealed the prophet stood up and said: O people of Quraysh,…" Abu Hurayra cut off the tradition and didn't mention all the text to distort it according to what the Umayyad policy required. We don't have but to say that there is no power save in Allah!
And his saying: "The Prophet said: My heirs are not to inherit what I have left."
And: "Prophet Muhammad (s) said to his uncle Abu Talib: Say there is no god but Allah…until Allah revealed to the Prophet (Surely you cannot guide whom you love..) 28:56" and many other fabricated traditions. They used to subdue Imam Ali and the family of the Prophet (s).
Imam Abu Ja'far al-Iskafi said: "Mu'awiya had forced some of the Prophet's companions and some of the companions' successors to narrate bad traditions about Ali to defame and disavow him. He gave them bribes for that. So they fabricated what satisfied him. Among them were Abu Hurayra, Amr bin al-Aass, and al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba. Among the successors was Urwa bin az-Zubayr.."
Abu Ja'far al-Iskafi also said2 : "When Abu Hurayra came to Iraq with Mu'awiya in the year of (Jama'a), he came to the mosque of Kufa. When he saw that many people had come to receive him, he knelt on his knees and hit his head with his hand many times and said: "O people of Iraq, you say that I fabricate Allah and His apostle's sayings to be in Hell. I swear by Allah that I heard the Prophet saying: "Every apostle had a sanctum. My sanctum is Medina. Whoever spoils in Medina, will be cursed by Allah, the angels and all the people." I swear by Allah that Ali has spoiled in
1. Al-Khateeb in his book History of Baghdad, vol. 7, p.p. 35, and vol. 9, p.p. 99.
2. Sharh Nahj al-Balagha al-Hameedi, vol. 1, p.p. 358.
3. Ibid, vol. 1, p.p. 359.
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it! When Mu'awiya heard him saying that, he endorsed him, rewarded him and made him wali of Medina." 1
Sometimes he invented traditions defending the Umayyad hypocrites, whom Allah and His apostle had cursed to protect the religion and umma from their hypocrisy and ravage. But Abu Hurayra flattered
Marwan and Mu'awiya and their assistants by saying: "I heard the Prophet (s) saying: "O Allah, Muhammad is but a human being. He becomes angry like all the human beings. Every believer I have hurt, abused or whipped, You may make that as a cause to forgive him and to bring him closer to You in the Day of Resurrection."
Marwan and his sons tried their best to spread this tradition in many ways until the books of Hadith (Sahih, Sunan and Musnad) mentioned it as true tradition.
The role of Marwan and his sons in raising Abu Hurayra to a high level and preferring him to all the others in memorising, accuracy and piety, had had its effect until nowadays.
They had done many things to satisfy people that Abu Hurayra was trustee and pious.
One of them was that Marwan pretended that he had seated his clerk in a secret place that he wouldn't be seen by any one at all and called for Abu Hurayra to come in. He began to ask him about many things. He asked him too many questions. Abu Hurayra answered with the Prophet's traditions and the clerk, whose name was Zu'ayza'a, was writing down without letting any one feel of him. He wrote down too many traditions. Marwan waited for a year and then called for Abu Hurayra and asked him the same questions.
1. Sufyan ath-Thawri narrated from Abdu-Rahman bin Qassim from Omar bin Abdul-Ghaffar that when Abu Hurayra came to Kufa with Mu'awiya, he sat at the gate of Kinda in the night and people sat around him. One day a young man from Kufa - he might be al-Asbagh bin Nabata - came and said to him: "O Abu Hurayra, I ask you, by Allah, if you had heared the Prophet saying to Ali bin Abu Talib: "O Allah, support whoever supports him and be an enemy of whoever opposes him." Abu Hurayra said: : yes, I had." The young man said " I swear by Allah that you have supported his enemies and opposed his assistants." Then he left.
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He answered with the same answers, no word more no word less. Marwan and his clerk spread this lie among the people of Damascus to reach everywhere until al-Hakim mentioned it in his book al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p.p. 510.
And that when Marwan wanted to bring his knights and soldiers in order not to let the Hashimites bury Imam Hassan beside his grandfather, Prophet Muhammad's tomb, he preconcerted with Abu Hurayra that the latter would oppose Marwan and blame him hardly in front of people to deceive them and to make them perceive that Abu Hurayra was a veracious man. He didn't fear anyone save Allah and His apostle and that no one could stand against him when he became angry for the sake of Allah and His apostle.
When Abu Hurayra did his opposition, Marwan showed his anger. There was a false argument and untrue rage between them. Abu Hurayra protested strongly against Marwan justifying that he (Abu Hurayra) had a special position to the Prophet 1 which no one of the Prophet's companions or relatives had and that he had an ability of perceiving and memorising from the Prophet by which he surpassed the first Muslims like Omar, Othman, Ali, Talha, az-Zubayr and the others. He let himself go farther in describing his aspects, which imposed for him the highest ranks of the close companions. So the disagreement between them ended and Marwan submitted to the great position of Abu Hurayra in Islam and his high rank of knowledge in Sunna. All that happened in front of people. The plan succeeded and Marwan would use Abu Hurayra as a means to fight Imam Hassan, Imam Hussayn, their father and their sons. It was the most successful propaganda for their policies. (Woe, then, to those who write the book with their hands and then say: This is from Allah, so that they may take for it a small price; therefore woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they earn). 2:79.
1. In a tradition mentioned by Ibn Sa'd and Ibn Hajr in his Issaba. We shall comment on this tradition in a next chapter of this book.
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THE QUANTITY OF HIS TRADITIONS
All those who collected the Hadith agreed unanimously that Abu Hurayra had narrated traditions more than any one else at all. 1 They counted his traditions to find that they were five thousand and three hundred and seventy-four traditions. He had in al-Bukhari's Sahih only four hundred and forty-six traditions. 2
We found that all what was narrated by the four caliphs in comparison with Abu Hurayra's traditions was less than twenty-seven percent. Abu Bakr had narrated one hundred and forty-two traditions. 3 Omar had narrated five hundred and thirty-seven traditions. 4 All what Othman had narrated were one hundred and forty-six traditions. 5 And five hundred and eighty-six traditions
1. Refer to the last line of page 240, vol. 4, of Ibn Hajr's book al-Issaba which included the book al-Issti'ab in the margins.
2. Refer to al-Qastalani's book Irshad as-Sari, vol. 1, p.p. 212, the explanation of the first tradition of Abu Hurayra mentioned by al-Bukhari in his Sahih, you will find that Abu Hurayra had narrated from the Prophet (s) 5374 tradition and that he had in al-Bukhari's Sahih 446 traditions. Ibn Hazm in his book al-Milal wen-Nihal vol. 4, p.p. 138, said tha Abu Hurayra had narrated 5374 traditions.
3. It was mentioned by as-Sayouti in his book Tareekh al-Khulafa' (the history of the caliphs), an-Nawawi in his book at-Tahtheeb. Ibn Hazm in his book al-Milal wen-Nihal, vol. 4, p.p. 137 and ath-Thahabi in his book Mizan al-I'tidal, who said that the true traditions of Abu Bakr were less than twenty.
4. As-Sayouti said in his book Tareekh al-Khulafa' that Omar's traditions were five hundered and thirt-nine. Ibn Hazm mentioned in his book al-Milal wen-Nihal, vol. 4, p.p. 4, 138 the same number and said that the true traditions ot Omar were nearly fifty traditions.
5. Jalaluddin as-Sayouti in his book tareekh al-Khulafa'.
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were narrated from Imam Ali1 . So the total is one thousand and four hundred and eleven traditions, which if you compare to Abu Hurayra's traditions you will find the ratio exactly as we said.
Let any prudent one think of Abu Hurayra, the short period of his being a Muslim, his obscurity, his illiteracy and all what would make him be mean, then think of the four caliphs, their priority in Islam, their attendance during the legislation of the laws of Sharia, their braveries throughout fifty-two years; in twenty-three of them they were at the service of the Prophet (s) and in twenty-nine of them, they governed the umma and mastered the other nations. They conquered the countries of Kasra and Caesar. They built towns and countries, spread Islam, and declared laws of Sharia and Sunna. So how would it be possible for Abu Hurayra, alone, to narrate so many times as much as they had narrated of the Prophet's traditions?
Also Abu Hurayra was not like Aa'isha, although she narrated too much. The Prophet (s) had got married to her ten years before Abu Hurayra became a Muslim. 2 She was in the house where Allah's inspiration was revealed to the Prophet (s) and the place of coming and going of Gabriel and Michael for fourteen years. She died a little before Abu Hurayra's death. 3
What a difference between the two companionships and the two ones' acumen was! As to the companionship it was known. But as to acumen, her acumen competed with her hearing and her heart preceded her ears. She was very acute. Nothing happened to her unless she recited poetry about it. Orwa said that he had not seen
1. As-Sayouti, Tareekh al-Khulafa' (Ali's biography). Ibn Hazm in his book al-Milal wen-Nahl, vol. 4, p.p.137.
2. Ibn Abdil-Birr said in his book al-Isstee'ab that the Prophet (s) had got married to Aa'isha in the tenth year after his Prophecy - three years before hijr - so her marriage was before Abu Hurayra being a Muslim in ten years because he became Muslim inthe seventh year of hijra.
3. She died i fifty-seven of hijra before Abu Hurayra's death in a short time. Abu Hurayra offered the prayer for her - the prayer for the dead - by order of al-Waleed bin Otba bin Abu Sufyan, who was made wali of Medina by his uncle Mu'awiya. He wanted to honor Abu Hurayra by that. Aa'isha was buried in Baqee.
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anyone having more knowledge in jurisprudence, medicine, or poetry than Aa'isha. Masrouq said that he had seen some of great companions asking her about religious duties.
She was forced to spread her traditions that she sent her callers to the countries and led that great army to Basra. And in spite of all that, her traditions were two thousand and two hundred and ten. 1 So her traditions were less than a half of Abu Hurayra's traditions.
If you add Aa'isha's traditions to that of Um Salama (the Prophet's wife), who died after the death of Abu Hurayra in a long time, the rest of the Prophet's wives, Imam Hassan, Imam Hussayn, Fatima (the daughter of the Prophet) and the four caliphs, you find that they altogether were less than Abu Hurayra's traditions. This was a terrible thing! Let the prudent think of it.
Besides that, Abu Hurayra pretended that the Prophet (s) had informed him alone of some traditions that he would never reveal to any one. He kept them inside his conscience and buried them in his chest. And as you know that Abu Hurayra had a well-fortified chest and an inscrutable conscience! So he said: "I had kept from the Prophet two vessels. I spread the first, but if I would spread the other, this throat would be cut." 2
He said: "If I told you all what I knew, people would throw potteries at me and say: Abu Hurayra is mad."
He said: "If I told you all what I had in my chest, you would throw dung at me."
He said: "They say that Abu Hurayra told too many traditions. I swear by Allah that if I told you all what I had heard, you would throw dunghill at me and you would never debate with me." 3
He said: "I had memorized from the Prophet (s) some traditions that I didn't tell you of. If I told you of them you would throw stones at me." 1
1. Ibn Hazm's book al-Milal wen-Nihal, vol. 4, p.p. 138.
2. Al-KBukhari's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 24.
3. The three previous tradition were mentioned by Ibn Sa'd in his book, Tabaqat, vol 4, p.p. 57.
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He said: "I had memorized from the Prophet (s) five bags of traditions. I told of two of them and if I told of the third, you would throw me with stones." 2
Abu Hurayra was neither the Prophet's heir apparent nor the caliph after him to prefer to the others and tell him secrets and knowledge that he would not tell anyone of his close companions or relatives.
What was the use of telling him those secrets since he was a weak man with meanness that prevented him to say something of those secrets unless he would be thrown with stones, dung and trashes or that his throat would be cut?
Would it not be better for the Prophet to tell those secrets for the caliphs after him, who led people by one will and to whom the nations submitted and the necks of the Arabs and non-Arabs yielded? They were better than Abu Hurayara in doing that. If they had had those secrets, they would spread them throughout the countries like the rays of the sun. Far be it from the Prophet to do something in vain. Would he entrust Abu Hurayra with his secrets to be lost uselessly? And who was Abu Hurayra to be singled out of the first Muslims? (And the foremost are the foremost. These are they who are drawn nigh (to Allah)) 50:10-11.
Abu Hurayra often said: "Abu Hurayra neither keeps secret nor writes down." How did this saying agree with his saying: "I had memorized from the Prophet two vessels. I spread one of them. If I spread the other, this throat would be cut" and the other sayings having the same meaning that he kept secret?
Let us ask those, who research for the divine secrets that the Prophet (s) entrusted Abu Hurayra with and that Abu Hurayra kept secret to preserve himself or to keep his dignity. Were those secrets
1. Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, vol. 3, p.p. 509, ath-Thahabi in his Talkhees. What a dignity Abu Hurayra had! He said .... you would throw at me stones, potteries, dunghill. And when he said about himself..... the comers put their feet on my neck.. and when he talked about his stomach,lice and his other affairs.
2. Abu Na'eem, Hilyatul-Awliya', p.p. 381 (biography of Abu Hurayra).
3. Ibn Sa'd's Tabaqat, vol. 2, p.p. 119.
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of the kind of secrets that the Prophet (s) entrusted his guardian Imam Ali with? Did they concern the caliphate and caliphs after him? Were they of another kind? If they were of the first kind, why would Abu Hurayra turn away from them and contradict them completely? His opinion would be like all the other Muslims' opinion for he was just one person among the others. But if those secrets were of another kind, he would not refrain from telling offensive and disgraceful traditions!
Did he not narrate that the Prophet slept and missed the Fajr prayer? And that the Satan came to him to disturb his prayers?
Didn't he narrate that once the Prophet forgot and offered a two section prayer instead of four and when they asked him: Did you forget or restrict the prayer? He answered: I neither forgot nor restricted?
Did he not tell that the Prophet hurt, abused, cursed and whipped innocent people just because he became angry?
Did he not ascribe to the apostles many things that were impossible for them to commit according to the Sharia and reason? He narrated that Prophet Muhammad (s) had said: "We are worthier than Abraham to be in doubt." He also narrated that Prophet Lot's trust in Allah was not certain.
Did he not dare to defame Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, who must be honored?
Did he not ascribe to Moses that he had slipped the angel of death and gouged his eye? And that once Prophet Moses ran nakedly in front of the Israelites, who looked at his private parts?
Did he not narrate that Solomon, the son of David, had broken the verdict of his father? And that he refused to say inshallah, so his deed failed?
Did he not ascribe to Allah what could never be accepted neither by the Sharia nor by reason? He said that Hell will not be full, unless Allah puts His leg in it. In his tradition about the Day of Resurrection, he said that Allah comes to people in an image different from that which they know saying to them: "I am your god." They say: "Allah forbid!" Then He comes to them in the image, which they know! They say: "You are our god." Abu
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Hurayra said that Adam was created in an image like the image of the Beneficent (Allah)! And that Allah had created Adam like His image. He was sixty cubits long and seven cubits wide.
You will find many many of his wonders in the next chapter which cause to cut the throat, so why he told of them easily? In fact he narrated those traditions as if he had done people a favor. He told of superstitions but no one threw at him a stone, dung, or trash as it was clear for any one knew him. But we are afflicted with unjust people and we do not have save Allah to resort to.
We want to draw the prudent researchers' attention that Abu Hurayra said : "No one have narrated traditions from the Prophet (s) more than I have, except Abdullah bin Amr bin al-Aass, because he wrote down but I didn't."
He confessed that Abdullah bin Amr had narrated traditions more than he had. We researched on Abdullah's traditions and we found that they were no more than seven hundred. 2 So they were less than one seventh in comparison with Abu Hurayra's traditions.
The researchers were very confused how to excuse Abu Hurayra in this contradiction. But Ibn Hajar al-Qastalani and sheikh Zakariya al-Ansari found an excuse when they explained this tradition in their books 3 that Abdullah bin Amr bin al-Aass lived in Egypt and those, who went to Egypt, were very few, therefore he narrated a little of his traditions, while Abu Hurayra lived in Medina, which was the destination of Muslims from everywhere, so his traditions were so many.
Abu Hurayra's saying was clear to abort this excuse. He acknowledged that no one had narrated traditions from the Prophet (s) more than he had except Abdullah bin Amr. The man, himself,
1. A tradition narrated by Wahab bin Munbbih from his brother Hummam from Abu Hurayra, mentioned in al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 22.
2. Al-Qastalani's book Irshad as-Sari fee Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p.p. 373.
3. Al-Qastalani's Irshad as-Sari and Zakariya`s Tuhfatul-Bari. They were printed together in twelve volumes. You will find this excuse in vol.1, p.p. 373.
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confessed that Abdullah's traditions were more than his so there was no way for the excuse of the two authors.
The great position and respect Abdullah bin Amr had in Egypt were a good cause to let him narrate his many traditions. There was no one else than him in Egypt, whom people knew very well, except some very few companions or travelers. So he was the only expert in the Qur'an, the Sharia and the Sunna that people resorted to. What a difference between his position in Egypt and Abu Hurayra's position in Medina was! For Abdullah had the rank of the veracious jurisprudent and the glory of the conqueror's son in the Egyptians' hearts, where Abu Hurayra, in Medina, was just one of thousands of the Prophet's companions. The delegations visiting Medina went to the famous great companions, whom Abu Hurayra was not one of. Also he was accused of narrating too much many traditions from the Prophet (s). People of Medina often blamed him by saying: "Why didn't the Muhajireen and the Ansar narrate as much as his traditions." His position in Medina would not let him narrate so many traditions. It was unbelievable that his traditions were more than Abdullah's; especially after his confession that Abdullah's traditions were more than his. In addition that Abdullah bin Amr lived long after Abu Hurayra's death. In fact Abu Hurayra confessed of that at the beginning after the Prophet's death, when he was not so excessive in narrating traditions. He became so excessive during the reign of Mu'awiya where there was neither Abu Bakr, Omar, Ali nor any one of the great companions whom Abu Hurayra feared.
1. Muhajireen(emigrants): the first Muslims of mecca who emigrated to Medina.Ansar(helpers and assistants): the people of medina who beleived in the prophet assisted him and his companions.
2. Abu Hurayra died, as it was mentioned in al-Issaba of Ibn hajar, in fifty-seven or fifty-eight of hijra and it was said fifty-nine. Abdullahi died, according to the same reference, in sixty-five or sixty-eight or sixty-nine of hijra. Al-Qaysarani said in his book Rijal-as-sahihayn that he had died in ninety-two. Allah is the most aware.