16. The prophet misses the Fajr (dawn) prayer
The two sheikhs mentioned 1 that Abu Hurayra had said: "We travelled in the night with the Prophet (s) and slept at a late time.
1. This quoted from muslim's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 254.
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We didn't wake up until the sun rose. The Prophet (s) said: "Let every one lead his sumpter and move from here.
It is a place attended by the Satan." We did. Then he asked for some water to do wudu'. 1 He did two prostrations then he offered the prayer in the morning."
The guidance of the prophet Muhammad (s) was far above such a tradition. Allah said: (O you, who have wrapped up in your garments! Rise to pray in the night except a little, half of it or lessen it a little or add to it and recite the Qur'an as it ought to be recited) 73:1-4 until He said: (Surely your Lord knows that you pass in prayer nearly two?thirds of the night, and (sometimes) half of it) 73:20. Allah addressed the Prophet in another saying: (Keep up prayer from the declining of the sun till the darkness of the night and the morning recitation; surely the morning recitation is witnessed. And during a part of the night, pray Tahajjud beyond what is incumbent on you; maybe your Lord will raise you to a position of great glory) 17:78-79. Allah asked the Prophet to pray in the night moreover than the five prayers, which were obligatory for all of the Muslims, while the night prayer (nafila) was obligatory for the Prophet alone. Allah said: (And rely on the Mighty, the Merciful, who sees you when you stand up and your turning over and over among those who prostrate themselves before Allah) 26:17-19. It did mean that Allah saw you when you stood up to worship Him in the night when there was no one seeing you except Him and saw your doings among the believers when you led them in offering the prayers. Also Allah said addressing him: (and sing the praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before the setting and glorify Him in the night and after the prayers) 50:39-40.
1. Ritual ablutrion as prerequisite to offer the prayer.
2. Allah made this verse to show the time of the prayers.Zuhr(noon)and Asr (afternoon) prayers participated in the time from the noon untill the sunset but the Zuhr prayer was to be before the Asr prayer. The Maghrib (sunset) and Isha' (night)prayers participated in the time from the sunset untill the darkness of the night but the Maghrib prayer was to be before the Isha' prayer. Allah also mentioned the Fajr (dawn) prayer in the verse to declare that these prayers were obligatory and to declare the time of offering them.
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He offered prayers all the night and he hanged his chest with a rope in order not to feel sleepy . He kept on standing up, sitting and prostrating until his feet swelled . Then Gabriel said to him (from Allah): "Take care of yourself. It has to be cared by you." Then he revealed to him: (Ta Ha. We have not revealed the Qur'an to you that you may be unhappy. Nay, it is a reminder to him who fears) 20:1-3. The verse meant that: We didn't reveal to you the holy Qur'an in order to tire yourself with worshipping, but we revealed it to be a reminder to him, who fears Allah. So take care of yourself and don't burden yourself with more than you can bear.
Al-Bukhari assigned particular chapters in his Sahih for the Prophet's night prayer, his long prostration in the night prayer and his standing until his legs swelled and his feet chapped.
Thus he accustomed himself to do in the night. How about the five obligatory prayers, which were one of the bases, upon which Islam was based? Would he sleep and miss the prayer? Allah forbid! And it was far away from the Prophet, who recited to the people: (Attend constantly to prayers and to the middle prayer and stand up truly obedient to Allah) 2:238 and he incited people: (Successful indeed are the believers, who are humble in their prayers) 23:1-2 and described the believers: (And those who keep a guard on their prayers; these are they who are the heirs, who shall inherit the Paradise; they shall abide therein) 23:9-11 and called out to people: (keep up prayer; surely prayer is a timed ordinance for the believers) 4:103 and made all people hear: (He indeed shall be successful who purifies himself and magnifies the name of his Lord and prays) 87:14-15.
The holy Qur'an is full of verses like these that the Prophet taught people their maxims and good sermons. How many times the Prophet did prick the inattentive by: (Woe to the praying ones, who are unmindful of their prayers, who do (good) to be seen) 107:4-6 and exposed the hypocrites when Allah revealed to him about their
1. As mentioned in the book Majma`ul Bayan, in the interpretation of the verse of (Taha). It was narrsted by Qatada.
2. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 135. Refer to al-kashshaf, when interpreting the verse of Taha,
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characters: (and they do not come to prayer but while they are sluggish, and they do not spend but while they are unwilling) 9:54 and he criticised someone, who slept and didn't offer the night prayer until the morning came, by saying: "The Satan made water in his ear." 1
What a metaphor it was about those, who accustomed themselves to sleep without offering the night prayer and what a rhetoric it was from (an honored messenger, The processor of strength, having an honorable place with the Lord of the Dominion, one (to be) obeyed, and faithful in trust).
What a hard word it was, which would make the believers worry and never sleep without offering the night prayer if they thought right of themselves. The pious and the obscene, the believer and unbeliever knew and witnessed that the prophet Muhammad (s) was the first who carried out his principles and was the best worshipper, who kept on his principles sincerely. He educated his umma by his deeds more than his sayings. He wouldn't criticise that, who slept without offering the night prayer so hardly, if he himself slept in front of his companions and missed the Fajr prayer. Glory be to Allah! What a great slander it was!
Abu Hurayra himself narrated 2 that the Prophet (s) had said: "The Satan ties three knots upon the nape of every one of you when he sleeps. If he wakes up and mentions Allah, one knot will open. If he makes wudu', the second knot will open and if he offers the prayer the third knot will open. Then he will be active and in good spirits, otherwise he will be lazy and in bad spirits."
This tradition had a rhetorical metaphor like the previous one. The Prophet (s) wanted to warn his umma from the Satan and to incite them to obey Allah. If Abu Hurayra was true in this tradition, he must be a liar when he told that tradition of the Prophet's sleeping and missing the Fajr prayer.
1. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol 1, p.p. 136.
2. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 136. What a strange of al-Bukhari it was that he mentioned this tradition in his book as well as the tradition in his book as well as the tradition talking about the sleeping of the Prophet and missing the prayer!Also refer to Ahmed's Musnad, vol. 2. p.p. 153.
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Abu Hurayra narrated that the Prophet had said: "No prayer is heavier for the hypocrites than the prayers of Fajr and Isha'. If they know what these two prayers have, they will come to offer them even creepingly. I was about to order the caller of azan to say the iqama 1 and then to order a man to lead people in prayer and I would take a torch to threaten with fire whoever didn't come to offer the prayer yet."
The Prophet (s) urged people to offer the prayers, paid much attention to the Fajr prayer and threatened those, who didn't come to offer the prayer, by burning them with fire. After all that, was it believable that he himself slept and didn't offer the prayer? Certainly not!
Allah might have mercy upon Abdullah bin Rawaha, the martyred companion, when he said: 2
"Among us was the Prophet,
Reciting the holy book when the dawn began to send
He made us see the guidance after our blindness,
so our hearts faithed in him that whatever he said
He spent the night away from his bed,
while the others were in a deep sleep."
Let us go back to the tradition to state what remained to refute it.
Firstly: they (the jurisprudents and the authors of books of Hadith) said that the Prophet's heart (senses) didn't sleep even when his eyes were sleeping. Their Sahihs declared that clearly. 3
This was one of the signs of the prophecy and Islam; therefore it was not probable for him to sleep and missed the Fajr prayer, because if his eyes slept, his heart would be attentive, especially to his god. Nothing of sleeping would make him inattentive to his duties. Once
1. Specified wordings to be said after the azan as a forepart for the prayer.
2. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahjih, vol. 1, p.p. 138.
3. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 179.
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he offered the night prayer and went to sleep before he offered the witr 1 prayer. One of his wives said to him: "O messenger of Allah, do you sleep before you offer the witr prayer?" He said: "My eyes sleep but my heart doesn't sleep." 2 He meant that he was certain he would not miss the witr prayer because he was fond of it and his heart was attentive to it even his eyes were sleeping. If he was so with the witr prayer, how about him when he slept before the Fajr prayer?
Secondly: Abu Hurayra declared, as mentioned by Muslim in his Sahih, 3 that this event happened to the Prophet during his return from the battle of Khaybar. How did Abu Hurayra pretend that he was with the Prophet then? Abu Hurayra became a Muslim after this battle as the historians mentioned unanimously. 4
Thirdly: Abu Hurayra said in the tradition: (The Prophet said: "Let every one of you lead his sumpter. This is a place attended by the Satan." We did so).
It was well-known that the Satan didn't near to the Prophet (s) and all people knew well, too, that Abu Hurayra was very poor and didn't have anything to satiate his hungry stomach with, so wherefrom did he get a sumpter to lead away as he said: we did so?
1. One of night prayers.
2. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 179 and Ahmed's Musnad, vol. 2, p.p. 251.
3. vol. 1, p.p. 254.
4. Abu Hurayra said in the last days of his life:"I and a few of my tribe came to Medina toconfess our Islam where the Prophet had left to khaybar and appointed Siba` bin Arafat al-Ghifari as his successor in Medina.We offered fajr prayer with him.He supplied us with some food and money.We set out untill we came to the Prophet where he conquered Khaybar. The Prophet talked to muslims to perticipate us with their shares."This tradition was not narrated by any true one except Abu Hurayra but the public (the sunnis) depended upon it, as they always did with Abu Hurayra`s traditions,anmd confirmed Abu Hurayra`s attendance at Khaybar with the Prophet without any true evidence.According to our infallible imams,Abu Hurayra came and became a Muslim after the return of the Prophet from khaybar.
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Fourthly: Abu Hurayra said: "…then the Prophet asked for some water to do wudu'. He prostrated twice and then offered the Morning Prayer."
The Prophet offered Morning Prayer to compensate the Fajr prayer, which was missed (according to Abu Hurayra), but we didn't know the two prostrations the Prophet did what fore and what they were!
An-Nawawi skipped them when he explained this tradition.
Fifthly: It was normal for the armies and leaders to have guards to ward them when they wanted to sleep, especially if there was a king or some one important among them. As for the Prophet, he had many enemies. There were many hypocrites within his army, who were awaiting to wreak themselves upon the Prophet. The Prophet (s) would not differ from the leaders to safekeep himself and his army. He wouldn't sleep, with his companions, in that desert surrounded by his enemies of the polytheists and the recusant Jews, unless there were guards to ward them. Would he pay no attention to this important matter, where he was the master of the wise men before being the master of the prophets? So were the guards sleeping, too as the callers for azan were? Certainly not! But it was the liars, whom the Prophet (s) had warned against!
Sixthly: At that night, the Prophet was with an army of one thousand and six hundred men; among them were two hundred knights. It was not possible that all of them were sleeping and no one of them woke up at all. Let suppose that they didn't wake up by themselves, weren't they woken up by the neighing and noise of beating the ground by hoofs of two hundred horses wanting their fodder at time in the morning? What torpor the all were in, men and horses! It might be one of Abu Hurayra's miracles.
17. A cow and a wolf speak in eloquent Arabic
The two sheikhs mentioned that Abu Hurayra had said: "The prophet Muhammad (s) offered the Fajr prayer, came in front of people and said: "Once there was a man leading his cow. He rode it and beat it. The cow said: We were not created to be beaten but for plowing!" People said: "Praise the Lord! A cow speaks!" The Prophet said: "We believe in that; me, Abu Bakr and Omar, although they, both, are not here. Also there was a man grazing his
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sheep. The wolf came and took one of them. The man followed the wolf and saved the sheep. The wolf said to the man: "You saved it from me! Who will save it if the lion comes one day to take it, when there will be no keeper for it but me?" people said: "Praise the Lord! A wolf speaks!" The Prophet (s) said: "We believe in this; me, Abu Bakr and Omar, although they, both, are not here." 1
Abu Hurayra was fond of wonders and unusual things. He was mirthful when he talked about unusual things like the running away of the rock with Moses' cloths or when Moses slapped the angel of death and gouged his eye, the falling down of gold locusts upon Ayyoub (Job) and the likes of his impossibilities.
And here he told of a talking cow and a talking wolf, which spoke in eloquent Arabic to show that they had reason, knowledge, and wisdom. He told of something, which definitely never happened nor would happen at all. The natural rules, which Allah made for all what He had created, made this thing impossible unless there was a necessity for a miracle to be a sign to prove the prophecy of one of the apostles or something related to Allah. The matter of the man, who led his cow to the field and rode it, did not need any challenge or miracle that Allah would break the rules of nature for him. The same was for the sheep keeper, when the wolf invaded his sheep. This tradition was completely untrue, for Allah would not make miracles in vain.
Abu Bakr and Omar were not in need for such a virtue. In fact if they had heard him telling of it, they would have punished him. But he mentioned Abu Bakr and Omar as a means to satisfy his tendency to the oddities, at the same time to walk in their shadow because he knew well that no one could deny what he said, otherwise would be accused of defaming the two caliphs; Abu Bakr and Omar.
1. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 171 and 190, Muslim's Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 316 and later page and Ahmed's Musnad, vol. 2, p.p. 246.
2. Certainly, he invented this tradition after their death.
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18. Making Abu Bakr emir of hajj
The two sheikhs mentioned that Hameed bin Abdur Rahman bin Awf said that Abu Hurayra told him that Abu Bakr had sent him (Abu Hurayra) during the hajj,1 of which the Prophet made Abu Bakr emir a year before the Farewell Hajj , with some men in the Day of Immolation to inform people of that no polytheist would be permitted to come to hajj and no one was to go around the Kaaba nakedly after this year. 2
Al-Bukari mentioned another tradition narrated by Hameed that Abu Hurayra had said: "Abu Bakr sent me among a group of callers to Mina 3) in the Day of Immolation to announce that no polytheist would be allowed to come to hajj and no one was to go around the Kaaba nakedly after this year. Then the Prophet (s) sent Ali after us to inform of sura of Bara'a. Ali announced with us to the people of Mina in the Day of Immolation." 4
No wonder if the Umayyads' policy imposed upon Abu Hurayra and Hameed this falsehood and no wonder if they both volunteered to do that.
In fact Abu Hurayra went to Damascus, the capital of the Umayyads, trading with his goods (traditions), which sold well there. Propaganda against Imam Ali and the progeny of the Prophet was the best profitable trade for the charlatans there.
Hameed was formed by the hands of Mu'awiya to carry like these traditions. He pretended to be pious and abstinent. He was fond of hearing from Imam Ali's enemies. 5 He was like the bitter Umayyad enemies of Imam Ali. It was not strange of him because he was their son. His mother was Um Kulthoom bint6 Aqaba bin
1. The last hajj of the Prophet Muhammad (s) before he died.
2. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 192 and Muslim's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 517.
3. A place nmear Mecca.
4. Al-Bukhari`s Sahih, vol. 3, p.p. 90.
5. He narrated from Mu'awiya, an-Nu'man bin Basheer, al-Magheera bin Shu'ba Abdullahi bin az-Zubayr, Marwan and others like them. His traditions were mentioned by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
6. (bint) means:daughter of and (bin) means: son of.
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Abu Ma'eet bin Thakwan bin Umayya bin Abd Shams. She was the sister of al-Waleed bin Aqaba. His grandmother was the mother of Othman bin Affan. Her name was Arwa bint Kurayz bin Rabee'a bin Habeeb bin Abd Shams. His father, Abdur Rahman was against Imam Ali. So no wonder that Abu Hurayra and Hameed agreed to spread this falsehood, which the mercenaries transferred to everywhere faster than the wind.
What invalidated this tradition that Abu Hurayra (before he enjoyed the pleasures of the Umayyads) said: 1 "I was among the delegation that the Prophet sent with Ali to inform of sura of Bara'a." His son, al-Muharrir asked him: "What did you inform of?" He said: "We announced: "No one enters Paradise except the believers, no polytheist is to come to hajj after this year, no one is to go around the Kaaba nakedly and whoever has a covenant with the Prophet, it will be valid for four months. 2 I cried of that until my voice became hoarse."
This was his true tradition mentioned in the historians' books and of those, who collected the Hadith. He did not mention Abu Bakr. He said that the pilgrims, whom the Prophet sent to Mecca, were under the emirate of Imam Ali, the same emirate, which Abu Hurayra ascribed to Abu Bakr.
If Abu Hurayra was sent with Imam Ali by the Prophet, what would be the meaning of his Saying (Abu Bakr sent me with other callers in the Day of Immolation of that hajj) and his saying (then the Prophet sent Ali to follow after us and call out with us)? It was
1. Refer to al-Hakim's Mustadrak, vol. 2, p.p. 131, ath-Thabit's Talkheess and imam Ahmed bin Hanbal's Musnad, Vol.2, P.P. 299.
2. The jurisprudents denied this saying (it will be valid for four months) because what the speech of Imam Ali included at that day was (any polytheist has a convenent with the prophet, it will be valid until its date, whatever its period is and whoeber has a convenant without a limit of time, it will be valid for four months). It was clear that Abu Hurayra didn't attend the season of hajj to know they announced of. It was ordinary for him, because many times he pretended to attend the events he talked about but, in fact, he didn't attend them therefore he narrated them falsely.
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not but a contradiction. 1 (They desire to put out the light of Allah with their mouths, and Allah will not consent save to perfect His light) 9:32.
Inshallah, I will clear the truth of this tradition to you in some points:
Firstly: it is to clear the reality of the task (the send with Bara'a) in summery.
When sura of Bara'a was revealed to the prophet Muhammad (s), he sent Abu Bakr to recite it in the day of the greater hajj in front of all the attendants and to declare the dispensation of Allah and his messenger from the covenants between the Muslims and the polytheists, no polytheist would be permitted to come to the Kaaba, no one would enter Paradise but the believers and no one was to go around the Kaaba nakedly.
When Abu Bakr went with Bara'a not so far, Allah revealed to the Prophet that no one would carry out his divine tasks save him or a man of his family. The Prophet called for Imam Ali and ordered him to follow after Abu Bakr and take Bara'a from him, then to go to Mecca to carry out the task himself. The Prophet gave Imam Ali full authority to be the emir of hajj in that year 2 and to give Abu Bakr the option either to go back to Medina or to go on with the pilgrims. Imam Ali rode the she-camel of the Prophet called al-Adhba' and followed after Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr asked Imam Ali: "Why did you come, Abul-Hassan?" Imam Ali said: "The Prophet (s) ordered me to take the verses of Bara'a from you and to go to void the covenant of the polytheists. 3 You are free to return to him
1. The contradiction between the two traditions was clear concernig the sender of Abu Hurayra and the other callers, the place of the send; Medina or Mecca and the date of the send; either the Day of Immolation or before it.
2. Refer to at-Tabrasi's book Majma'ul Bayan, vol. 3, p.p. 3.
3. If you say: why did the prophet order Abu Bakr to go with Bara'a to avoid the convenant of the polytheists in the day of hajj and then he deposed him before the time of hajj came? Wasn't that a kind of abrogation of something before the coming of its time of carrying out, which was impossible for Allah and His apostle? Certainly not! The prophet sent Abu
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or to go with me." He said: "I return to him." Ali went to Mecca with the pilgrims of Medina. Abu Bakr went back to Medina. He said to the Prophet: "You honored me with a thing I looked forward to it, but when I went to do it you ordered to bring me back. Did Allah reveal to you something about me?" The Prophet said: "No, but Gabriel (s) told me from Allah that no one would carry out my divine tasks save me or a man of my family. Ali is of mine and so he will do instead of me." Traditions with this meaning were frequently narrated by the infallible imams. 1
Secondly: some of what was mentioned by the public (the Sunnis) confirmed what we mentioned above. Here is the saying of Abu Bakr as clear evidence. He said: "The Prophet sent me with Bara'a to Mecca to announce that no polytheist was to come to hajj after this year, no one was to go around the Kaaba nakedly, no one would entered Paradise save the believers, whoever had a covenant with the Prophet, it would be valid until its date and that Allah and His apostle were acquitted from the polytheists. I went away for three days then the Prophet (s) said to Ali: "Follow after Abu Bakr and let him come back to me. Take Bara'a from him and go to inform of it." When I went back to the Prophet in Medina, I cried and said to him: "Did some thing happen about me?" He said:
Bakr and then ordered him to come back and sent Ali instead, to add to Ali a virtue, which wouldn't be so if he sent Ali from the first. The same happened to Abraham. Allah ordered him to slaughter his somn. When he tried to do, Allah revealed to him : ( You have indeed shown the truth of the vision; thus so We reward the doers of good) and ransomed his son with a sacrifice and didn't let him slaughter his that Abraham was not, really, ordered, by Allah, to slaughter his son but to try to do that to show people the virtue of Abraham and his son and there was no any abrohation in this matter.
The same was when the prophet sent Abu Bakr to conquer Khaybar then he sent Omar, but they returned unsuccessfully. The prophet said: Tomorrow i will give the banner to a man, who loves Allah and His apsotle and They love him. He truimph with help of Allah." He gave it to Ali and Ali conquered Khaybar. The virtue of Ali appeared much better than to be sent from the first. There were many cases like these.
1. Refer to Ali bin Ibrahim in his Tafseer, when he interpreted sura of at-Tawbah ( Bara'a ) and Sheikh al-Mufid in his Irashad.
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"Nothing but good happened about you. But I was ordered that no one was to carry out my divine tasks except me or a man of my family." This was the tradition of Abu Bakr 1. Do you think that his crying and emotion went well with making him emir of hajj or with excluding him from that?
Such was the tradition of Imam Ali 2 when he said: "When ten verses of Bara'a had been revealed to the Prophet (s), he called for Abu Bakr and sent him to recite them for the people of Mecca. Then he called for me and said: "Follow after Abu Bakr. Wherever you get him, take the book from him and go to recite it for the people of Mecca. I got him and took the book from him. He went back to the Prophet and said to him: "O messenger of Allah, was anything revealed about me?" The Prophet said: "No, but Gabriel told me that no one would inform of the revelation except me or a man of me."
Imam Ali said in another tradition:3 "The Prophet (s) sent Bara'a to the people of Mecca with Abu Bakr then sent me after him and said to me: "Take the book from Abu Bakr and go to Mecca." I got him and took the book from him. He went back depressedly to Medina. He asked the Prophet: "Was anything revealed about me?" The Prophet said: "No, but I was ordered that I would inform of it or one of my family."
Another tradition narrated by Ibn Abbas, who protested against the opponents of Imam Ali and began to talk in details about the virtues of Imam Ali and the conditions of preferring him to the whole umma after the Prophet (s). He said: 4 "…then the Prophet sent Abu Bakr with sura of at-Tawba (Bara'a) and sent Ali after him to take it from him. The Prophet said: "No one will go with it save a man, who is from me and I am from him."
1. Refer to Ahmed's Musnad, vol. 1, p.p. 2.
2. Ibid. vol. 1, p.p. 151.
3. mentioned by an-Nassa'ei in his book al-Khasssa'is al-Alawiya, p.p. 20, ima Ahmed bin Hanbal and others.
4. Refer to al-Hakim's Mustadrak, vol. 3, p.p. 3, p.p. 32, ath-Thabit in Talkhees aal-Mustadrak, an-Nassa'ei book al-Khassa'is al-Alawiya, p.p. 6 and Ahmed in his Musnad, vol. 1, p.p. 331.
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Ali's opponents gave in to Ibn Abbas. If Abu Bakr was the emir in that year, they would not give in to Ibn Abbas. They found his evidence definite, so they submitted to him.
Ibn Abbas, once said: "I was walking with Omar somewhere in Medina, when he said to me: "O ibn Abbas, I think that your companion (Imam Ali) is wronged." I thought that I would not let it go in vain. I said to him: "O Amirul mu'mineen, 1 give his right back to him." He pulled out his hand from mine and went away murmuring for a while and stopped. I followed him. He said: "O ibn Abbas, I think they prevented him that (the caliphate) because they found him too young." I said: "I swear by Allah, that Allah and His apostle didn't find him too young when they ordered him to take Bara'a from your companion." He left and hurried away."2
1. Commander of the beleivers.
2. It was mentioned by az-Zubayr bin Bukar bin Abdullah bin Mus'ab bin Thabit bin Abdullah bin az-Zubayr bin al- Awwam in his book al-Muwaffaqiqiyyat, which he wrote foral-Muwaffaq bil-lah, the son of al-Mutawakkil, the Abbasid caliph. It was Allah's secret, which could never be hidden and His light, which could never be put out that az-Zubayr bin Bukar himself mentioned such a tradition in his book. Ibn Bukaar was known for his enemity to Imam Ali and the Hashimites. He,who was asked by one of the Hashimites to swear between theholy tomb and mimbar of the Prophet and he swore falsely, therefore Allah afflicted him with leprosy. He abused the Alawites (the descendants of Imam Ali) and their grandfatherImam Ali. They decided to kill him. He fled to his uncle Mus'ab bin Abdulla bin Mus`ab and asked him to beg al-Mu'tassim, the Abbasidcaliph, to safeguard him but his uncle didn't respond to him because his uncle was not like him in his enmity to the Alawites. (This was mentioned by ibnul Atheer in his book at-Tareekh al-Kamil-al-Mu`tassim's biography). His father Bukaar was a bitter enemy to Imam Reza invoked Allah against him. He fell down from his castle and broke his neck. His grandfather, Abdullahi bin Mus'ab gave a fatwa to Haroon ar-Rasheed, the Abbasid caliph, to kill Yahya bin Abdullah bin al-Hassan. He said to ar-Rasheed: "O amirul mu'mineen, kill him and I will be the responsible for him. "He said: "He doesn't deserve that. "He pulled out the document of the convenant from Yahya by force and tore it with his own hands. It was the enmity they inherited, one after the other, from their
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How brilliant he was when he overcame the caliph with this eloquent argument. He did not let any way to the Caliph to answer so he turned away and left hurriedly. If his companion was the emir of that season of hajj, as Abu Hurayra pretended, he would not leave hurriedly unless he knew the truth, because he was with Abu Bakr when he left towards Mecca with Bara'a and when he returned before achieving the task. So he knew every thing about that event more than any one else.
Once al-Hassan al-Basri was asked about Imam Ali. He said: "What can I say about him, who owned the four qualities; being entrusted with Bara'a, the saying of the Prophet to him in the battle of Tabouk, the Prophet's saying to the Muslims: "I have left to you two important things; the holy Qur'an and my family" and the fourth that he always was the commander and he was never commanded by any one while the others (Abu Bakr, Omar... etc.) were commanded by the leaders." 1
It was well-known that al-Hassan al-Basri was sincere to Abu Bakr and devoted himself to spread his virtues. If Abu Bakr was the emir of hajj in the year of Bara'a, al-Hassan al-Bassri would not hide that and would not witness to Ali that he was never commanded by any one and would not imply that Abu Bakr was commanded by the others. If you inspected his speech, you would know that he appreciated the entrusting with Bara'a and thought that it was an attribute concerning Ali and no other than him was well-qualified for it.
When the companions commended Ali in Medina during the reign of Abu Bakr and Omar, they mentioned this attribute as one of his virtues and no one debated with them about it.
grandfather Abdullah bin az-Zubayr untill it reached az-Zubayr bin Bukaar, by which he got the favor near al-Mutawakkil by choosing him to educate his son al-Muwaffaq. Al-Mutawakkil orderd to give him ten thousand dirhams, ten wardrobes of cloths and ten mules to carry his baggage to Samarra`.He educated his son al-Muwaffaq and wrote him his book al-Muwaffaqiyyat, which was excellent wonderful book that we qouted from it much,in this book and other books.
1. Refer to sharh an-Nahj al-Hameedi, vol.1, p.p. 369.
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Sa'd (bin Abu Waqqas) said: 1 "The Prophet (s) sent Abu Bakr with Bara'a. When he passed some of the way, the Prophet sent Ali after him to take it and go with it to Mecca. Abu Bakr became uncomfortable. The Prophet (s) said: "No one is to carry out my divine tasks save me and a man of my family."
Anass (bin Malik) said: 2 "The Prophet (s) sent Bara'a with Abu Bakr, then he called for him and said: "No one is to inform of this except a man of my family." He called for Ali and gave it to him.
Jamee' bin Omayr al-Laythi asked Abdullah bin Omar about Imam Ali. Ibn Omar scolded him and said: "This is the house of the Prophet in the mosque and this is the house of Ali. Once the Prophet sent Abu Bakr and Omar 3 with Bara'a to Mecca. While they were on their way to Mecca, a rider came. They asked who he was. He said: "I am Ali. O Abu Bakr, give me the book, which is with you." He said: "Is there anything wrong about me?" Ali said: "I don't think but good." Ali took the book and went to Mecca. Abu Bakr and Omar went back to Medina and asked the Prophet: "What happened about us?" He said: "Nothing happened about you save good, but it was revealed to me that no one was to carry out my divine tasks except me or a man of my family."
The books of Hadith mentioned clearly that Abu Bakr returned to Medina uncomfortably and was afraid that something was revealed to the Prophet about him. This didn't fit hat he was the emir of that season of hajj. But the propaganda against Imam Ali was so strong that it made a great effect during the beginning of Islam.
1. Refer to an-Nassa'ei's book al-Khassa'is al-Alawiyya, p.p. 20 and Ahmed's Musnad.
2. Ibid.p.p.20 and Ahmed's Musnad, vol. 3, p.p. 216.
3. Omar was a fellow to Abu Bukr at that time.He was among three hundred companions,who went away with Abu Bakr. But Omar was a hundred companions,after the return of Abu Bakr,joined Ali, who led them as the emir to Mecca.The all witnessed that Abu Bakr returned to medina uncomfortably.
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Thirdly: the acquittal of the covenant with the polytheists brought great results to the Muslims. As well it brought Imam Ali more glory and highness near all of the Arabs, when Allah and His apostle chose him to do this task especially after the bringing back of Abu Bakr. Many other qualities confirmed that Ali was the best one of the umma and the closest to the Prophet alive or dead.
When the Prophet (s) acquitted the covenant of the polytheists, prevented them to come to hajj and to Mecca and declared that Paradise was prohibited for them, the religion became complete and the state of the Muslims became better and stronger than ever before.
The Muslims gained honor and glory. The fury of the polytheists was reposed and their necks submitted to the Muslims. So the religion was all for Allah, glory be to Him.
Allah willed all that to be achieved by His slave and His apostle's guardian, Ali bin Abu Talib, to extol him, to show his virtue, to exalt his fame, to declare his great significance, to pave the way to entrust him with the caliphate and to declare practically in the next year that he would be the caliph after the Prophet (s).1 The fame of Ali spread among the Arabs like the light of morning, for the acquittal of any covenant, according to their rules, was to be done by the chief, who had concluded that covenant, and no one other than him could do that except that, who represented him or would be his successor, who must be brave and strong, didn't fall into error and didn't doubt in his decisions or when he broke or confirm the verdicts.
What would guide you to all that was the saying of the Prophet (s) to Imam Ali when he sent him to take Bara'a from Abu Bakr: "Either I go with it or you go." Imam Ali said: "If it must be, then I will go." The Prophet (s) said: "Go off. Allah will confirm your tongue and guide your heart." 2
1. The acquittal of the convenant was in the ninth year of hijra and the Prophet declared Ali to be the caliph after him in the tenth year of hijra, when he was coming back from his last hajj.
2. Refer to Ahmed's Musnad, vol. 1, p.p. 150.
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It was clear that the task, which wouldn't be carried out except by the Prophet or by someone like him (in status) was a very great task that Ali won a victory by achieving it. He overcame the time; no one would precede him and no one would come up with him or look forward to his position.
He, who inspected well the bringing back of Abu Bakr from the task, would find the truth clear.
It was to say that the Prophet certified the reason when he said: "Gabriel came and said to me: "No one is to carry out your divine tasks save you or a man of your family." In the Arabic text he used (LEN), which means (will never). The meaning of the tradition is (no one at all is to carry out anything (of the divine tasks) instead of you except a man of your family).
If you say that this tradition might concern this very task only and not any task in general.
We say that this tradition was not the only tradition having this meaning. The likes of it were many.
In the Day of Arafa 1 of the farewell hajj (the last hajj of the Prophet) the Prophet, from above his she-camel, tried to attract the pilgrims' attention to inform them of their resort in order to complete his mission. He called them loudly. They all turned towards him with their eyes, ears and hearts. He said: "Ali is from me and I am from Ali. No one is to carry out my tasks except me and Ali." 2
What an entrustment that it was light for the tongue but heavy in the scale. It gave Ali the authority to carry out the Prophet's own tasks and made him be entrusted with the Prophet's secrets as Aaron was for Moses but Ali was not a prophet but a vizier and a guardian, who conducted like his prophet and judged among people instead of him.
1. The 9th of Dhul-Hijja,when the pilgrims perform certain actions on the mountain Arafat.
2. Refer to Ibn Maja's sunan, vol. 1, p.p. 92. it was mentioned by at-Tarmithi and an-Nassa'ei. It was the tradition no. 2531 in p.p. 153, vol. 6, Kanzul Ummal. It was mentioned by Ahmed in his Musnad, vol. 4, p.p. 164.
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That was a top, which Allah and His apostle didn't let anyone other than Ali ascend. (..then look again, can you see any disorder? Then turn back the eye again and again; your look shall come back to you confused while it is fatigued) 67:3-4. The Prophet (s) raised Ali to a level much higher than the level of the umma. He mixed his flesh with his own flesh and his blood with his own blood and his hearing, sight, heart and soul with his own when he said: "Ali is from me and I am from Ali." This was not enough for him until he said: "No one is to carry out my tasks except me and Ali." He put everything in this saying and made people perceive what he wanted to say. It was no wonder of that, for Allah said: (And certainly We chose them, having knowledge, above the nations and We gave them of the communications wherein was clear blessing) 44:32-33.
Let the prudent inspect this covenant well to know that it was no less in importance than the traditions of the day of Ghadeer. The carrying out of the Prophet's tasks, which concerned the Prophet and Ali only and was prohibited for the others to do, was itself the legal execution with infallibility like the infallibility of the holy Qur'an. So it was a definite excuse that the umma had to obey as they obeyed the orders of the holy Qur'an.
This was confirmed by the saying of the Prophet (s): "Ali is with the Qur'an and the Qur'an is with Ali. They never separate" 1 and his saying: "Mercy be upon Ali! O Allah, turn the rightness with Ali wherever he turns." 2 And many other traditions like that, which declared the infallibility of Imam Ali. (Our Lord! we believe in what Thou hast revealed and we follow the apostle, so write us down with those who bear witness) 3:53.
Fourthly: the enemies of Ali, who wronged him and tried to defame him, as well as Abu Hurayra, who flattered Ali's enemies, all distorted this tradition and turned his virtues aside from him.
His enemies of the hypocrites and his opponents, who broke their homage and fought him in the battle of the Camel, those who rebelled against his rule when they fought him in the battle of Siffeen and the Kharijites, who reneged from the right way of Islam,
1. Mentioned by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, vol. 3, p.p. 124.
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altogether tried to do that. His enemies, especially the dominants like Mu'awiya and his companions, employed their mercenaries to distort Imam Ali's virtues as possible as they could or the mercenaries themselves flattered the Umayyads by doing that. Ali had no guilt and they would never be excused for Allah honoured Ali by these high qualities because he reached a high position near Allah by his faith and jihad. They couldn't put up with the glory and honour of Ali and the qualities he owned; his sincerity to Allah, to the apostle and to the umma, his personality, his virtues, his kinship with the Prophet, his wife and his progeny, so they tried their best to defame him and to distort all his virtues. The scorpions of envy crept into the hearts of the hypocrites. The sons of the livers eater 1 occupied the top of the enmity to Ali. They didn't leave any way to fight him, to disgrace him and to incite people against him. They advanced in their cunning; broke their homage to him, deprived him of his legal rule and killed his progeny. They turned their backs to what the Prophet had ordered them to love and obey.
What they committed against him filled the space and covered the earth. All that didn't satisfy them until they: announced curse upon him, like the announcement of Iqama. 2
Would they not involve themselves in the holy Sunna where they tore every thing referred to preferring Imam Ali? They decided, with no evidence, that the true traditions were false. They interpreted the clear ones according to their wishes. They accused the narrators of being oppositionists. They distorted much of the Sunna and changed the fair meanings of the traditions as what Abu Hurayra mentioned in this tradition when he said: "Abu Bakr sent me…then he sent Ali after us to announce with us…" as if Ali was, in that season of hajj, just one of the callers sent by Abu Bakr to call out with Abu Hurayra.
It was no wonder of Abu Hurayra for his boldness in inventing traditions and directing them ornamented with the brocade that the
1. It was Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan and the mother of Mu'awiya. She tore the chest of Hamza ( the propphet's uncle) when he was killed in the battle of Uhud, and ate his liver.
2. Specified wordings to be recited before commencing the prayer.
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rabble liked and the general policy preferred and spread by the false propaganda.
Didn't he transmit the virtue from Ali to Abu Bakr flattering the government and endearing himself to the public by inventing what pleased them?
What a doing he did! He gagged the mouths to speak a word of the truth for fear of the public to plot against them and the government to revenge then. And what about then!
Abu Hurayra wanted by his tradition to sweep away the honoured position that Allah and His apostle chose Ali for in that season of hajj. He tended to say that:
(1) The task, which Ali went to carry out, was by the command of Abu Bakr, who was the emir of hajj as Abu Hurayra pretended. That Ali didn't suffice to do the task so Abu Bakr sent Abu Hurayra with some of the strong and hard men like Abu Hurayra to take much care about it.
(2) Ali had nothing more than what Abu Hurayra and his group, who were sent by Abu Bakr, had in that task, because they did the same as he did.
It was enough to refute this tradition that Allah saw Abu Bakr was not suitable for that task. He revealed to the Prophet to bring him back and to choose one of the only two efficient men for this task; either the Prophet himself or his guardian Ali.
Abu Hurayra, before he was employed to serve the Umayyad propaganda, told of this event without mentioning that Abu Bakr was the emir or ever mentioned him. He pretended that he and the other callers were with Ali. Refer to his tradition mentioned above.
We don't trust in both of his traditions nor that he called out in the Day of Immolation or that he ever attended that season of hajj at all. I swear by Allah that we do never trust in whatever he narrated.