Fifthly: The political propaganda, during the Umayyad reign, had committed a serious crime against the prophetic traditions besides what their mercenaries invented of fabricated traditions to flatter the rulers and how hard they tried to make the tradition of Hameed narrated from Abu Hurayra be true.
( 120 )
Inventing traditions was a good craft for the adulators to live by. Those adulators had a skill to ornament and promote their goods (traditions), which no one felt of at that time except the discerners and how few they were! Behind those adulators were the mercenaries of those, who collected and wrote down Sunna and Hadith, the flattering learned ones, the hypocrites, who pretended to be pious and abstinent like Hameed bin Abdur Raman, Muhammad bin Ka'b al-Qardhi and the likes, the chiefs of the tribes in the towns and the sheikhs of the clans in the desert, who whenever heard anything from those adulators, spread it among the public and the rabble of the new conquered countries, told of it from upon the minbars, depended upon it as excuse and regarded it as base of Sharia. The trustworthy faithful ones had nothing to do but to be silent in front of those flattering mercenaries, who were defended by the rulers. If those poor were asked about what the liars invented of traditions, especially that talked about the virtues of Abu Bakr and Omar, they would fear the public, who followed the rulers blindly, if they said the truth. They would fear the flattering and the flattered ones. Thus many facts were lost many heresies were kept as bases of the Sharia. This heresy, of Hameed and Abu Hurayra, was the best lucky to be the stronger against the Prophet's family. They fabricated many other traditions having the same meaning and ascribed one of them to Ali himself, the second to his cousin Abdullah bin Abbas, the third to his companion Jabir bin Abdullah al-Ansari and the fourth to his grandson, the inheritor of his knowledge, Imam Muhammad al-Baqir. It was a conspiracy that the enemies of Ali used to do and they kept on it to disgrace the Hashimites without letting the public know the truth. The people, who came after them, collected those traditions as they were and wrote them down admiringly. They regarded what they had collected as true traditions inattentively.
The defect of the series of narrators of the tradition, which was ascribed to Imam Ali was Abu Zar'a Wahab bin Rashid. He was so hostile to Imam Ali. He acquired the hostility to the Hashimites from
( 121 )
his teacher Abu Yazeed Yunus bin Yazeed bin an-Najjad al-Ibli, the freed servant of Mu'awiya .1
The defect in the series of narrators of the tradition ascribed to ibn Abbas was Abul Qassim Muqsim bin Majza'a. He declared his enmity to Imam Ali. Al-Hakim thought that this man was one of al-Bukhari's men of Hadith and mentioned his fabricated tradition ascribed to ibn Abas in his Mustadrak. 2 Muqsim was not trusty as al-Bukhari mentioned in his book. Ath-Thahabi in his book Mizan al-I'tidal quoted from al-Bukhari and ibn Hazm that this man was not trusty. Ibn Sa'd said in his Tabaqat that he was excessive in narrating traditions and he was not trusty.
Because he was not trusty, al-Bukhari and Muslim didn't mentioned his traditions except one mentioned by al-Bukhari that Abdul Kareem bin Malik said that he had heard Muqsim saying: "Ibn Abbas said: "Those, who didn't go to fight in the battle of Badr and those, who fought would never be regarded as equal."
Al-Bukhari didn't mentioned in his Sahih except this tradition of Muqsim, certifying that he was not trusty. He mentioned this tradition for it didn't have any legal verdict besides that it wasn't said by the Prophet (s).
The defect in the tradition ascribed to Jabir was Abu Salih Iss-haq bin Najeeh al-Malti. He was offensive, malicious and excessive in lying. He was so daring in fabricating traditions as mentioned by the all, who wrote about the men of Hadith.
The defect of the tradition ascribed to Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (s) was Muhammad bin Iss-haq, who mentioned the tradition in his biography, which he filled with heresies and wonders that couldn't be believed.
1. Abu Nasr al-Kalabathi, Abu Bakr al-Isbahani and Abul Fadhl ash-Shaybani, who was known as ibnul Qaysarani, mentioned in their books that Yunus bin Yazeed was the freed servant of Mu'awiya. Refer to Ibnul Qaysarani's book, p.p. 485. This very Yunus narrated that Abu Talib was unbeliver when he died. Refer to Muslim's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 30.
2. vol. 3, p.p. 51.
3. vol. 5, p.p. 346.
( 122 )
Anyhow it was easy to refute these fabricated traditions for they were mean like their narrators. Their texts were weak and contradictory to the fact of those, whom they were ascribed to. In fact they were contradictory to the traditions narrated by Abu Bakr, Ali, ibn Abbas, ibn Omar, Sa'd and Anass that we mentioned in the second point of this chapter. It didn't fit the conduct of the Prophet, who did never appoint any one to command Ali along his lifetime but Ali always was the commander and the bearer of the banner in all the battles of the Prophet. It was different for the others like Abu Bakr, Omar and others, who were under the commandership of the teenager Ussama when the Prophet (s) went to the better world. In the battle of That as-Salassil, they (Abu Bakr and Omar) were under the commandership of Amr bin al-Aass. 1
As for Ali, he was not commanded by any one along the life of the Prophet (s). The Prophet didn't send him with the army of Ussama nor with the army of Amr bin al-Aass or the army of Abu Bakr and Omar when he sent them to Khaybar. When they returned he sent Ali and both of them were under Ali's commandership until he conquered Khaybar. When the Prophet sent Khalid bin al-Waleed to Yemen with an army and sent Ali with another army, he said to them that if they met, Ali would be the commander of the two armies and if they separated each one would be the commander of his army. 2
Abdullah bin Abbas said: "Ali had four qualities that no one other than him had; he was the first of the Arabs and the foreigners, who offered prayer to Allah with the Prophet, he was the bearer of the Prophet's banner in all of his battles…etc."3
19. The angels talk with Omar
Al-Bukhari mentioned 4 that Abu Hurayra had said: "The Prophet (s) said: "Some men of the Israelites, who lived before you,
1. Refer to al-Hakim's Mustadrak, vol. 3, p.p. 43 and ath-Thahabi in his Talkhees.
2. Refer to Ahmed's Musnad, vol. 5, p.p. 356.
3. Refer to al-Hakim's Mustadrak, vol. 3, p.p. 111.
4. In his Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 194.
( 123 )
were talked with (by the angels) although they were not apostles. If there is someone of my umma like them, it will be Omar." 1
Al-Bukhari mentioned another tradition 2 narrated by Abu Hurayra that he said: "The Prophet (s) said: "There were among the nations, who had lived before you, some people, who were talked with (by the angels). If my umma has someone like those, it will be Omar."
It was a fabricated tradition that Abu Hurayra had invented with adorned words years after the death of Omar. It came out just like what the policy of the upper class wanted and the public at that time jogged with it joyfully. The hostile Umayyad policy against Imam Ali and the Hashimites required raising Abu Bakr and Omar to the position of the prophets and the infallible saints. The masses were so ardent with the victories achieved during the reign of the two caliphs, Abu Bakr and Omar, so Abu Hurayra flattered both; the ruler and the ruled people by this tradition and the likes, therefore he got a favoured position near the rulers and among the public. If Abu Hurayra had told of these traditions during the lifetime of Omar, the caliph's stick would have got its share from his back, but the space was free for him to talk whatever he liked. It was well-known for the discerners and the prudent that those, whom the angels talked with, were either prophets or prophets' guardians, who all were infallible. The angels talked with the prophets face to face but as for the guardians, Allah inspired them with the truth as if an angel talked with them, but in fact no talker was there.
No doubt that Omar got a high status in Islam and did well for the umma, but he was not a prophet nor an infallible guardian, so the angels would not talk with him.
Moreover that the doings of Omar during the life of the Prophet (s) and after his life didn't fit him to be talked with by the angels at all.
1. Refer to al-Qastalani's book Irshad as-Sari, vol. 7, p.p. 349.
2. Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 171.
( 124 )
20. The heritage of the Prophet is for charity
The two sheikhs mentioned 1 that Abu Hurayra had said: "The Prophet (s) said: My heirs are not to divide a dinar of mine among them. What I have left, after taking away the spending of my wives and my employee, is to be for charity."
This tradition was narrated by Abu Bakr only. He used it as an excuse to prevent Fatima az-Zahra' (the daughter of the Prophet) her heritage after the death of her father. The two sheikhs and others mentioned that Aa'isha (the Prophet's wife) said 2: "Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet (s), sent to Abu Bakr asking him for her father's heritage. Abu Bakr said: "The Prophet said: We don't bequeath. What we leave is to be for charity." 3 Abu Bakr refused to give her anything of her father's heritage. Fatima became very angry with Abu Bakr. She deserted him and didn't talk to him until she died. She lived six months after her father's death. When she died, her husband buried her in the night (as she wanted in her will) 4 and Abu Bakr didn't offer the prayer (for the dead) for her.
Yes, she became very angry. 5She wore her hijab and left her house with her companions of women. Her gait was just the same as her father's, until she came to Abu Bakr, who was among a crowd of Muhajireen, Ansar and others. They put a veiling between her and them. She moaned and made all the attendants sob. The gathering shook. She waited a while until their sob and passion calmed down. She began her speech with praising Allah. She went on her speech that made the sights submit and the souls surrender. She would bring them back to the right way, but the politics overcame every thing then!
1. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 125, and Muslim's Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 74.
2. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 3, p.p. 37 - , Muslim's Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 72 and Ahmed's Musnad, vol. 1, p.p. 6.
3. This tradition was denied by Fatima and all the infallible imams.
4. Refer to Irshad as-Sari, vol. 8, p.p. 157.
5. Islamic cloths.
( 125 )
He, who heard her speech she made in that day, 1 would know what there were between her and the people 2 (Abu Bakr, Omar…). She proved her rights with clear evidences derived from the holy Qur'an that couldn't be denied.
1. Refer to al-Tabrasi's book al-Ihtijaj and Bihar al-Anwar. Some of the Sunni historians mentioned this speech in their books like Abu Bakr Ahmed bin Abdul Aziz ah-Jawhari in his book Kitab as-Saqifa and Fadak. Refer to Sharh an-Nahju al-Hameedi, vol. 4, p.p. 87, p.p. 93 and p.p. 94.
2. She said to Abu Bakr when he refused to give her her father's heritage: "O Abu Bakr if you die, who will inherit you ? He said: "My sons and family". She said: "Then why did you inherit the prophet's heritage instead of his offspring and family ? He said: "I didn't, daughter of the prophet". She said: "Certainly you did. You took Fadak ( a large planted area), which was the prophet's own property and prevented us from what Allah had reveled from the heaven to be ours." Refer to Abu Bakr bin Abdul Aziz's book Kitab as-Saqifa and Fadak, vol. 4, p.p. 87. It was also mentioned in p.p. 82, that when Fatima asked Abu Bakr for her heritage, he said to her:" I heard the prophet saying: " A prophet doesn't bequeath. "But I support whomever the prophet supported and spend on whomever the prophet spent on." She said: "O Abu Bakr do your daughters inherit you but the prophet's daughters dont inherit their father? He said: "It is so." Ahmed also mentioned sich a tradition in his Musnad, vol. 1, p.p. 10. Aj-Jawhari mentioned in Kitab as-Saqifa and Fadak, vol. 4, p.p. 81, a tradition narrated by Um Hani bint Abu Talib that Fatima said to Abu Bakr: "If you die, who will inherit you ? "He said: " My offspring and family." She said: "Then why do you inherit the prophet instead of us?" "He said: " O daughter of the messenger of Allah, your father didn't leave us anything." "She said: " Yes, he did. It was the share, which Allah made for us (according to the Qur'an) and became our property, which is now in your hands." He siad to her : "I heard the prophet saying: It (Fadak) is aliment that Allah gave to us and when I die, it will be for the Muslims." There was an other speech of Fatima (s) concerned the caliphate mentioned in aj-Jawahiri's book Kitab as-Saqifa and FAdak, vol. 4, p.p. 87 that Fatima bint al-Hussayn said: "When Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet (s) became very sick, the women of the Muhajireen and the Ansar gathered around her and asked her: " How are you, daughter of the prophet ? She said: "I hated your evil life and detested your men...." it was also mentioned by Imam Abul Fadhl Ahmed bin Abu Tahir in his book Balaghat an-Nissa', p.p. 23, al-Majlisi in his book Bihar al-Anwar and by at-Tabrasi in his al-Ihtijaj.
( 126 )
She said: "Did you turn your backs purposely to the book of Allah, who said: (And Sulaiman was Dawood's heir) 27:16, and said when he talked about Zechariah: (grant me from Thyself an heir, who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub, and make him, my Lord, one in whom Thou art well pleased) 19:5-6, (and the possessors of relationships are nearer to each other in the ordinance of Allah) 8:75, (Allah enjoins you concerning your children: The male shall have the equal of the portion of two females) 4:11 and said: (Bequest is prescribed for you when death approaches one of you, if he leaves behind wealth for parents and near relatives, according to usage, a duty (incumbent) upon those who guard (against evil)) 2:180.
Then she said: "Had Allah specialized you with a verse of the Qur'an and excluded my father? Are you more aware of the Qur'an than my father and my cousin (Ali)? Or you say: those of two different religions are not to bequeath each other?"
She argued with them by showing evidences from the holy Qur'an, which confirmed clearly that the prophets bequeathed their offspring through the verses about David and Zechariah. She was, definitely, more aware of the essence of the Qur'an than those, who came lately after the revelation of the Qur'an and distorted the meaning of heritage from properties to prophecy and wisdom without any evidence. They just played with the real meaning of the words! If that was true, Abu Bakr and the other attendants of Muhajireen and Ansar at that time would disagree with her about that. 1 There were
1. They didn't disagree with her about the Prophet's inheritage (whether it was knowledge and wisdom away from properties) or anything other. They only expropriated her inheritage, where Abu Bakr said: " O daughter of Prophet, Allah hadn't created any one more beloved to me than your father, the prophet Muhammad (s). I wished the sky would fall over the earth when your father died. I swear by Allah, that if Aa'isha (Abu Bakr's daughter) becomes needy is better for me than you to be needy. Do I give the white and the red (people their rights and I wrong you with your right, while you are the daughter of the Prophet ? This wealth was not the Prophet 's own property but it was of the Muslims. He spent it for the sake of Allah. When he died I became responsible for it." She said: " I will never talk to you after now." He said: " But I won't desert you." She said:
( 127 )
some evidences confirming inheriting properties by the prophets as mentioned by Alam al-Huda in his book ash-Shafi.
Then she argued with them justifying her right of heritage by showing them the other Qur'anic verses concerning heritage. If she was different from the others in this concern, her father and her cousin would definitely explain it to her and would not let her be liable to appear as ignorant in asking for what she didn't deserve and to disgrace herself and dignity by arguing without any evidence that it wouldn't result but enmity. It was impossible for the Prophet and his guardian to do so.
The prophet Muhammad (s) was very fond of his daughter Fatima Az-Zahra' and cared for her much more than the kind fathers with their children. He embraced her with his warm mercy and was ready to sacrifice himself for her. 2 He was very happy to be with her. He had much care to bring her up with the highest of morals and
"I will pray Allah against you ." He said: " I will pray Allah for you." Before she died she recommended that Abu Bakr not to pray the prayer of the dead for her. Refer to Kitab as-Saqifa and Fadak, vol. 4, p.p. 80, you will find that he didn't disagree with her about the meaning of inheriting when she mentioned the two verses f David and Zechariah, but he pretended that that wealth was not the Prophet's. She wasn't satisfied for she was the best aware of her father's affairs. But there is no power save in Allah, the Almighty, the exalted.
1. Alam al-Huda considered that Zechariah was afraid from his cousins t inherit his wealth, for he had no son, and they were evil and lewd . It was not possible tha they would be prophets or pious wise men that he feared they will inherit his rank of knowledge, wisdom and prophecy, but he was afraid that they would inherit his wealth and spend it in their ravage and corruption, therefore he asked his god to grant him a boy to be wortheir to inherit his wealth than his evil cousins. Alam al-Huda also considered that when Zechariah asked his god to make his inheritor be content that meant inheriting his wealth. If Zachariah meant inheriting of the prophecy,it would be nonsense to ask his god to make his son be content exactly as saying: O Allah, send us a prophet and make him be honest and not a lair.
2. ONce he mentioned her and said: " Her father sacrifices himself for her." He repeated that three timesin a tradition narrated by Ahmed bin Hanbal and by ibn Hajr in his book as0Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa, p.p. 109.
( 128 )
dignity. He tried his best to educate her. He fed her with the knowledge of Allah and the Sharia, until she reached the top of every virtue and every nobility of character. After all, would he keep secret what concerned her legal duties? Allah forbid! How would he do that and let her put up with all what she met after his death because of the heritage? How would he cause sedition to the umma because of the heritage? Certainly not! He was far above that.
Did her husband, the Prophet's mate and brother, ignore this tradition in spite of his great knowledge and wisdom and that he was the first to be a Muslim, the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law besides his honour, high position, guardianship and the special respect the Prophet had towards him? Why did the Prophet (s) keep it a secret and not reveal it to Imam Ali, who had all those virtues and noble qualities that no one else had? What about all of the Hashimites, who never heard of this tradition until they became astonished by hearing it after the death of the Prophet (s)? Why didn't the Prophet's wives know anything about this tradition that they sent Othman to ask for them about their shares from the Prophet's heritage?1 How was it possible for the Prophet to tell someone, who didn't have anything to do with his heritage, about it and not to tell his real heirs? The Prophet's conduct was not so. He announced the divine orders frankly. It was never told that he kept the legal laws a secret. He treated his tribe and relative so kindly and solemnly.
There was still a word said by Fatima (s) that invoked the zeal of people and moved their fury at most. It was her saying: "or do you say that those of two different religions are not to bequeath each other?" That was to say: when you prevented me my father's heritage, you wanted to say that I was not on the religion of my father (not a Muslim) and if you proved that (I am not a Muslim) you would have a legal excuse for preventing me my father's heritage. We don't seek save Allah's judgement!
Anyhow Fatima (s) failed to get her heritage because of this tradition, which the caliph alone, told of. It was not narrated by any
1. Refer to Kitab as-Saqifa and Fadak by Abu Bakr aj-Jawhari and refer to Shrh an-Nahj al-Hameedi, vol. 4, p.p. 83.
( 129 )
other than him. It might be said that it was narrated by Malik bin Ouss bin al-Hadthan.1
It was said that Ali and al-Abbas 2 went to Omar during his caliphate to judge between them. Othman, Abdur Rahman, az-Zubayr and Sa'd 3 were there with the caliph. The caliph said to them: "Do you know that the Prophet had said: (We (the prophets) don't bequeath. What we leave is to be for charity)." The attendants were obliged to believe him. It was not possible for them except to submit to the two caliphs' sayings especially at that time.
As for Abu Hurayra, he was nothing to be mentioned at those days. No one listened to him or paid any attention for him. Moreover, he was accused of his bad accent. He didn't dare, with those great figures, to tell of Hadith. In fact, he didn't find himself fit to join those, whom the caliph trusted and listened to, therefore he didn't say any word about this subject at that time until all the great companions died and countries like Sham, 4 Egypt, Africa, Iraq, Persia, India and other countries were conquered and their peoples became Muslims. The Muslims entered a new era. Then the Umayyads praised Abu Hurayra and raised his name and mention. They take off his dress of obscurity and made him bloom after his fade. It became easy for him to say whatever he liked. So he began to tell the public of what made them like him and be attached to him. Hence he flattered the rulers and the public by this tradition, which boosted their beloved caliph among the general public.
21. Abu Talib refuses to say shahada
Abu Hurayra said: "The prophet Muhammad (s) said to his uncle Abu Talib: "Say that there is no god but Allah and I will witness it for you in the day of Resurrection." His uncle said: "I would say it to comfort you but I was afraid that Quraysh would blame me and say that he did it because of impatience." Therefore, Allah revealed to the Prophet this verse: (Surely you cannot guide whom you love, but Allah guides whom He pleases) 28:56
Abu Hurayra said in another place: "The Prophet (s) said to his uncle when he was dying: "Say that there is no god but Allah and I will witness it for you in the Day of Resurrection." His uncle refused to say. Therefore
1. Refer to Sharh an-Nahj al-Hameedi, vol. 4, p.p. 91.
2. The prophet and Ali's uncle.
3. Refer to al-Bukahri's Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 124.
4. Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon.
( 130 )
Allah revealed to the Prophet (s): ((Surely you cannot guide whom you love, but Allah guides whom He pleases).1
Abu Talib, may Allah have mercy upon him, died in the tenth year of the prophethood of Muhammad (s), i.e. three years before hijra. It was also said that he died in the ninth or eighth year. So he died ten years before Abu Hurayra came to Hijaz. Then how could Abu Hurayra meet the Prophet and his uncle while they were talking about what he narrated as if he had seen with his eyes and heard with his ears? But he was of those, whose faith and reason didn't guide their tongues!
This tradition was one of many invented by the mercenaries to flatter the enemies of Ali and his progeny. The Umayyad state tried whatever was possible to spread it. There were enough works written by the scholars that refuted this tradition and proved Abu Talib's faithfulness with definite evidences. Whoever wants to know the truth of the faithfulness of Abu Talib, the Prophet's uncle, who was responsible for the Prophet since his childhood, brought him up, secured and safeguarded him, let refer to those books. 2
Abu Talib said in one of his poems:
O Allah, may You witness
I have believed in the mission of Muhammad. 3
22. The Prophet warns his tribe
The two sheikhs mentioned 1 that Abu Hurayra had said: "When Allah revealed to the Prophet (And warn your nearest
1. Refer to Muslim's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 31.
2. Refer to (al-Hujja ala ath-Thahib ila Takfeer Abu Talib) by imam Shamsuddeen Abu Ali FAkhr bin Sharif Ma'd al-Musawi and Sheikh al-Abtah by Sayyed Muhammad Ali Sharafuddin al-Musawi.
3. Abu Talib had much poetry showing his faith.
( 131 )
relations) 26:214, he stood up and said: "O people of Quraysh, I don't substitute for you near Allah (in the Day of Resurrection). O family of Abd Manaf, I don't substitute for you near Allah. O Abbas, I don't substitute for you near Allah. O Safiyya, I don't substitute for you near Allah. O Fatima bint Muhammad, ask for anything of my wealth but I don't substitute for you near Allah." 2
This Qur'anic verse was revealed to the Prophet in the beginning of Islam and before its spread in Mecca when Abu Hurayra was still in Yemen. He came to Hijaz twenty years after the revelation of this verse. He cut off the tradition and distorted it as usual according to the Umayyad policy and requirements of its propaganda against Imam Ali and the Hashimites. When this verse was revealed to the Prophet (s), he gathered his relatives, among whom were his uncles; Abu Talib, Hamza, al-Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them) and Abu Lahab (curse be upon him) and asked them to believe in Allah. He said to them: "Who of you will support me to carry out my mission and be my brother, vizier, guardian, heir and successor?" Ali, who was the youngest of them at that time, said: "I will be your vizier in carrying your mission." The Prophet touched Ali's neck and said: "This is my brother, vizier, guardian, heir and successor. You are to listen to him and to obey him." 3
23. The Abyssinians play in the mosque
Al-Bukhari mentioned that Abu Hurayra had said: "While the Abyssinians were playing with their bayonets in front of the Prophet in the mosque, Omar entered and began to throw them with pebbles. The Prophet said to Omar: "Let them do that." 4
The Prophet was far away from play and higher than levity. He knew well, more than any one else, of the prohibited actions. He
1. Refer to al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 86, Muslim's Sahih and Amed's Musnad.
2. Quraysh was the great tribe living in Mecca. Abd Manaf was one of the prophet's grandfathers. Abbas was his uncle. Safiyya was his aunt and Fatima was his daughter.
3. Refer to al-Muraja'at by Sharafuddin al-Musawi.
4. In his Sahih, vol. 2, p.p. 120.