This incident was represented by the perilous stance adopted by most of the Companions in the Saqifah, in which they expressly contradicted the Prophetic texts in appointing 'Ali (A) for the post of caliphate, and were attended by all of them on al-Ghadir Day after the farewell pilgrimage (Hijjat

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Despite the difference between the Emigrants (Muhajirun) and helpers (Ansar) concerning the caliphate, but they finally agreed upon deserting the Prophetic texts, and introducing Abu Bakr for caliphate even at the cost of taking lives, and they have prepared to kill anyone intending to oppose them though being the nearest in kinship to the Prophet (S).8
This incident has also demonstrated that the overwhelming majourity of the Sahabah have backed Abu Bakr and 'Umar in rejecting their Prophet's Sunnah and substituting it with their ijtihadat, as they are supporters of ijtihad.
On the other side, it projected the minority of Muslims, who clung to the Prophetic texts, and refused allegiance to Abu Bakr, who were represented by 'Ali and his followers (Shi'ah).
Thus the Islamic society witnessed, after the mentioned three incidents, the exposure of the identity of the two rival groups or parties, one of them respecting and applying the Prophetic Sunnah, and the other refuting and obliterating it, intending to replace it with exerting its opinion (ijtihad) that tempts most people, making them desire for seizing power or participating in it.
The first Sunni party was headed by 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and his followers, while the second ijtihadi party was headed by Abu Bakr,' Umar and most of the Companions.
The second party, led by Abu Bakr and 'Umar, did its utmost to destroy and break the first party's might, enginearing for this purpose several schemes to exterminate the opposing party, including:

First: Secluding and Paralyzing the Opposition Economically

The first initiative by the ruling party was depriving the opponents from all resources of provision and
8. The best evidence for the is Umar's threatening to burn Fatima's house with whoever was therein, which is a widely known episode in history books.
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finance. For instance Abu Bakr and 'Umar have determined to dismiss Fatimah's (A) peasants from Fadak, 9considering that land as property for all Muslims, and not seclusively owned by Fatimah (A) as ordained by her father (S).
They also deprived her from her father's inheritance claiming that the prophets do not lave any inheritance, besides depriving her from the share of khums (one-fifth) which was dedicated for God's Messenger and his Household (Ahl al-Bayt), since charities being forbidden for them.
Thus 'Ali (A) has become economically paralyzed due to losing Fadak land, that was usurped from him, from which was gaining huge profits, and was also deprived from cutting the share of khumsfrom him. So 'Ali (A), his wife and children became in need of someone able to provide their sustainance and clothe them, the case which was exactly expressed by Abu Bakr when he said to al-Zahra (A): "Yes you are entitled to take the khums, but I shall determine it as done by God's Messenger, so I won't let you starve nor be in need of dress".
As mentioned before, most of the Companions tht followed 'Ali (A) were poor bondmen, who could not constitute any danger for the ruling party, as people incline toward that who is rich, and despise the poor one.

Second: Secluding and Paralyzing the Opposition Socially:

The ruling party embarked on secluding the opposition party, led by 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, socially, aiming at causing their decline.
The first thing done by Abu Bakr and 'Umar was smashing the psychological and sentimental barrier, prompting all the Muslims toward venerating and dignifying the kinship to the Holy Prophet (S).
If 'Ali (A), being the Prophet's cousin and the master
9. The story of Fadak is known in history books, and Fatima's dispute with Abu Bakr till she passed away while being angry him is famous, and reported by al-Bukhari and Mulim.
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of the pure progeny, had so many opponents among the Companions, who were jealous of him because of that which Allah of His bounty has bestowed upon him, besides the hypocrites who were lurking for him, so how it be with Fatimah (A), who was the only Prophet's daughter that succeeded him among his Ummah,being the mother of her father as the Messenger (S) used to call her, and the lady of all women of the worlds. She has been respected and glorified by all Muslims due to the status she had near her father, and the traditions he uttered regarding he virtues, honour and purity.
Despite all this, we noticed how Abu Bakr and 'Umar intended to bring to the ground this respect and veneration in the eyes of people, so 'Umar ibn al-Khattab came to her house, holding a firebrand, and sorrounded it with fire-wood, swearing to burn the house with whoever is inside, if they do not go out for swearing allegiance to his comrade (Abu Bakr).
About this incident, Ibn 'Abd Rabbih says in his book al-'Iqd al-farid:10
"But 'Ali, al-'Abbas and al-Zubayr stayed inside Fatimah's house until Abu Bakr sent to them 'Umar ibn al-Khattab to bring them out of the house, telling them: "If they refrain fight them". So he ('Umar) came holding a fire-brand, intending to burn the house with them, whereat Fatimah stood before him saying: "O Ibn al-Khattab, have you come to burn our house?"
He replied :"Yes, unless you enter into what the Ummah entered".
If Fatimah al-Zahra, the lady of all women of the worlds, as mentioned in the Sihah of "Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamah", and her two sons who are the masters of the youth of heaven-dwellers, and the Prophet's aromatic plant (rayhanah), being despised and belittled to the extent that 'Umar openly swears to burn their house upon them should they refuse to acknowledge Abu Bakr as a caliph, shall it remain then any respect or reverence in other people's hearts
10. Al-'Iqd al-farid, by Ibn 'Abd Rabbin, vol. iv, when mentioning a group refusing to swear allegiance to Abu Bakr.
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toward 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, who was detested and envied by most people, and who became, after the Prophet's demise, the head of the opposition, having nothing of vanities of the world, to be liked by people?
Al-Bukhari relates, in his Sahih, that Fatimah (A) demanded from Abu Bakr her inheritance left by God's Messenger, from which Allah has bestowed over him, with Fadak, and what is left from Khums of khaybar. She was encountered with Abu Bakr's refusal to pay her anything, so she became angry and forsook him, never talking to him till her death. Throughout her life after the Prophet (S) that lasted for six months, Abu Bakr was never allowed to enter her room, until she passed away, where her husband 'Ali (A) buried her at night. When she was alive,' Ali (A) used to receive people but after her demise he disguised himself from people, so he sought to hold compromise and allegaince to Abu Bakr, while he never held allegiance during those months.11
Al-Bukhari and Muslim claim (in their books) that the ruling party managed in imposing economical and social seclusion upon 'Ali, and defaming him in people's eyes, to the extent that he disguised himself from people, and was coered to reconcile and aknowledge Abu Bakr.
Al-Bukhari'a expression "Ali disguised himself from people" presents an express evidence showing the great grudge and hatred faced by Abu al-Hasan (peace be upon him) after his cousin's and wife demise, that he was even abused and slandered by some Companions while walking with them, so he has disguised himself from people due to the abomination he witnessed from them.
Our intention of this chapter is not just citing events, and the justice done to 'Ali (A), but is in fact to disclose the bitter and painful truth, that is the bearer of the Prophetic Sunnah's standard and the gate of the Messenger's knowledge has become deserted, whereas the supporters of exerting the opinion (al-'ijtihad bi al-ra'y), who reject Prophetic
11. Sahih al-Bukhari vol, v. p.82 ''bab Ghazwat Khaybar'',. Sahih Muslim, ''kitab al-jihad
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Sunnah, are in power, being backed by most of the Companions.

Third: Secluding the Opposition Politically:

Despite the severe seige imposed on the oposition, beside usurping their financial rights and secluding them from the Islamic society, until people turned their faces away from Ali ibn Abi Talib, and mentioned before, the ruling party never sufficed with all theses measure, but it emberked on secluding him ( Ali) politically, alienating him from all state devices, not allowing him to occupy any government post, beside not assigning him any responsibility. While they have appointed those released from bondage tulaq and debauchees from Banu Umayyah, who fought against Islam throughout prophet's (S) life time, al-Imam Ali (A) was secluded and kept away from the political arena throughout twenty -five years, in which Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman ruled. And at the time when some governors from the Companions were accumulating funds and hoarding up gold and silver and account of Muslims Ali (A) was earning his living through labouring hard by watering the Jews date palm.
Thus the gate of knowledge, the pontiff of the Ummah and Sunnah - bearer remained home imprisoned, whose value was unknown but for some oppressed people, numbering no more than hand-fingers, who were following him, being guided by his guidance and faithfully commited to him.
Al-Imam Ali tried, during his caliphate, to restore people to the Qur'an and the prophetic Sunnah, but faced failure, because people sided with umar's ijtihad, and most of them cried out in the Mosque: oh (alas) Umar 's Sunnah wa sunnatu Umarah).
The conclution we get from all this is that, ' Ali and his followers held fast to the prophetic Sunnah, working for
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receiving it, and never abandoning it, whereas the rest of the Ummah followed the heresies of Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ai'sha calling them the good heresies "12
This being not just a claim, but a reality upon which all Muslims have concurred, stating it in their sihah (varacious refference), and was recognized by every researcher and equitable (munsif)
Al-Bukhari himself testifies that al-Imam Ali has been a memorized of the Qur'an, knowing all its rules, and was the first one to compile it. whereas neither Abu Bakr, nor Umar, nor Uthman were learning Qur'an by heart, or knowing its rulings.13The historians mention that they heard Umar's saying for seventy times): Had Ali not been there Umar would have perished", and also Abu Bakr's saying to (Ali): I could not live in a time whereat you are not present O Abu al-Hasan ... and concerning ' Uthman you can say what you like.
12. Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. iip. 252 ''bab salat al-tarawih'' and also vol. vii, p. 98.

13. 'Umar's unawareness of the rule of kalalah is quite known in the Sunni books, beside his ignorance of the ruls of tayammum, that is known for all and reported by al-Bukhari in his Sahih, vol. i, p 90.

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Although Umar ibn al- Khattab, is considered by Ahl al-Sunnah as one of the inspired and of the knowldgeable Companions, if not the most kowledgeable one absolutely, according to the narration they brought out in their sihah, that the prophet gave him the remainder of his drink, being interpreted into knowledge (ilm), but he testifies against himself his being unaware of much of the Prophetic Sunnah and being occupied with with trading in markets.

Al- Bukhari narrates in his sahih in the chapter: the proof is upon whom said: "The prophet's rulings were apparent, and ome people have not missed seeing the prophet and Islam's affairs and says "Abu Musa asked permision to see Umar, but on finding him busy he retuned, then Umar said I think I heard the voice of Abd Allah ibn Qays, let him in and he was summoned to entre, whereat 'Umar asked him: What prompted you to do what you did?"

He replied: "We were ordered to do this" Umar said" Can you bring an evidence, or otherwise I shall do so and so with punish you)". So he went to the Helpers (Ansar) where they said:, only the juniors among us can give witness, so Abu Sa'id al- Khuduri stood up said: "We have been ordered to do so''. Then Umar said: I have not seen this from the prophet (S), doing transactions in markets kept attention away of this "14
14. Sahih al-Bukhari vol. viii, p. 15, kittab al-'itisam bi al-kitab wa al-sunnah'',. Sahih Muslim, vol vi . p .279. ''bab al-isti'dhan min kitab al-adab''.

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First: The matter of taking permission is common in Islam, being a prophetic Sunnah known by all strata of people, and people have been taking permission to see the prophet (S) being one of Islam 's etiquette and glorious deeds.
This narration signifies that Umar ibn al- Khattab used to have guards and policemen keeping people from entering upon him without taking permission. Abu Musa asked permission to enter upon him three times, but he never allowed him in, so he went back. However his (Umar's) assistants and followers from Banu Umayyad, trying to show he was better and superior to the Prophet (S) said that he has been sleeping on the road-edge without guards, untill it was said in his right: You have done justice, so you could sleep (in rest) Some times people dared to say that he was more just than the prophet (S) since the prophet has had body guard, ( while he has not) otherwise why it was: justice died away with Umar?!

Second: This narration tells us about the rudeness and roughness with which Umar ibn al- khattab was known, and roughness with Umar ibn al-khattab was known, and any way he was treating people without any justifiction.
An evident example for this is when Abu Musa al- Asha'ari being one of the great Companions, infers the prophet's tradition in respect of asking permission, and Umar says to him: By God I shall inflict pain on your back and bowels, unless you bring who can testify your claim.15
Was there any justification for insulting Abu Musa charging him with falsehood and threatening him with painful beating, just because of a narration he cited from God Messenger( S), untill Ubayy ibn Ka'ab has, after confirming the tradition's veracity -- said: O Ibn al- khattab, do not be a torment for the Companion for the Messenger of God 's Messenger (S)16.
15. Sahih Muslim, vol, vi, p. 179

16. Ibid

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I can never see any justification other than Umar's sturbbornness in most of the affairs, that when he faced with any objection by God's Book or the Propphet's Sunnah, he loses his temper and resorts to threating, the behaviour that made many Companions hide the truth though knowing it, as in the case of Ammar ibn Yasir when he confronted Umar with the Prophetic Sunnah in the matter of tayammum (rubin face and hands with soil in absence of water), he was faced with Umar's threatening whereat he said: if you like I shall not talk about this issue.17
There are many evidences about Umar's preventing the Companions from narrating the prophetic traditions, from Abu Bakr 's reign, particularly during his calipahate that lasted for more than ten years, in which he bureid burned all the collectecd prophetic traditions and prevented the Companions from narrating them, imprisoning some of them because of that,18 the act which was done by Abu Bakr before him and by Uthman after him.
So how is it said then that the Caliphs have been ruling according to the Prophetic Sunnah, whereas this Sunnah got nothing from them except burning, preventing and obscurity?!

Third:This narration indicates that Umar ibn Khattab has been most often absent from attending the Prophet's meetings and listening to his discourses, being indulged in marchandise through markets.
Therefore he missed most of the prophetic traditions, that were known by the elect and public of the companions, including even their boys. This being testified by the Helpers saying, when Abu Musa took refuge with seeking safety from "Umar 's threatening, as they said: By Allah only the youngest one amongst us will accompany you. Then Abu Sa'id al-khudri, who was the most junior one, stood up and testified that he heard the prophet (S) utter that tradition.
17. Sahih Muslim, vol. i, p. 193, ''bab al-tayammum; and also Sahih al-Bukhari,
18. This is elaborated on the book Fas'ahlu Ahl-Dhikr, with citing the references.

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This in itself is a degrading for Umar who ascended the throne of caliphet, while not know the simplest affair known by the youngest people. what is his position as regards the Messenger's (S) tradition, which says: "While a governor takes charge of people, knowing that there is amongst them someone more knowledgeable than him, thereat he has betrayed Allah, His Messenger and blievers".
How far is 'Umar from heeding such Prophetic traditions, which he rejected during the Prophet's lifetime, being unconvinced with them, and granting himself the right of exerting ijtihad against them.
We should refer to Abu Hafs confessing his ignorance when being encountered by proof and evidence by some Companions, by saying once: "O Umar all people are more knowledgeable( afqah ) than you even the Women- kind" and another time: "If Ali being not there Umar would perish" and a third time: Making deals through markets has kept my attention away from the prophet's traditions" (said by umar)
At the time Umar's attention is kept by making deals through markets away from the Sunnah, he is more diverted from the Qur'an. Once he dispute with Ubayy ibn ka'ab who was the most famous of memoraizers(of Quran) denying his way of reading, claiming that he never heard of it before, threat Ubayy said to him: "O Umar I have been busied with the Qur'an and you with making deals through markets"19
So his (Umar) business in trade and amusement with doing transctions in markets could be known by all people, not being a secret to be kept from the Companions particularlay those who have been aware of Allah's Book and His Messanger's Sunnah.
I think he has been suffering a big psychological complex, which is the complex of compound ignorance, as he sees the youngest of Muslims known what he knows not
19. Ta'rikh Ibn 'Asakir, vol. ii, p.228, a similar narration is reported by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, Abu Dawud hin Sunan, and Ibn al-'Athir in jami'' al-'usul.
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memorizing that which he can not memorize. And sees Ali beside him, being a youth of less than thirty, whose opinion is approved, thanks to what he learned by heart of the Book (Qur'an) and Sunnah, with the presence of the Companions until he (Umar) is obliged to say: "Had Ali not been there, Umar would have perished."
Also he face a woman debating him in the mosque, while he was on tribunal (minbar ), arguing him with God's Book concerning women's dowery before all who were present, whereat he say: "All people are more knowledgeable than you O umar! even the woman - kind!
This in fact was not out of content on his part, as it was a convering over his ignorance, and an attempt to gain the public opinion to his side showing that he was modest, as it is reiterated nowadays by many people.
This complex made "Umar strive hard for eradicating the prophetic Sunnah, exerting his opinion against the Book and Sunnah, upon which numerous evidences are there.20
Whoever follows up 'Umar's sirah( career), will find out that he has not been with the prophhet (S), after embracing Islam, but only half the messenger lifetime, or much less than this.
Here we see him speaking to himself in this respect, saying:
"I and my neighbour from the helpers were at Banu Umayyah ibn Zayd, which was at the upper part of al-Madinah, and we were going down to see the prophet( S) alternately, he was going down one day and I on other. When it was my turn I would apprise him of what occured in that day of revelation (wahy) and else, and so did he.21
His saying: "We were going down to see the prophet (S) Alternately, he was going down one day and I the other", contains an explicit evidence that his lodging was distant from the Prophet's mosque, so he divided his life into two days: one in which he goes down to see the prophet, and the other he never goes, nor takes pains to see him due to remoteness
20. Some of them are cited in Ma'a al-Sadiqin and Fas'alu Ahl al-Dhikr
21. Shih al-Bukhari, vol. i, p.31, ''kitab al-salat, bab altanawub fi al-'ilm''.

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of distance. Or that the distance was not remote but he goes down to the markers to indulge in dealing and trade.
Had we added to this his saying: "Making deals through markets distracted my attention of the prophet's traditions" in the case of Abu Musa al- Ash'ari, previously mentioned, following it with Ubayy ibn Ka'ab's saying: O Umar I have been busied with the Qur'an and you with making deals through markets", as said before, we would have been sure that he had not been long enough with the owner of the messege(S)
And he might have been absenting God's Messenger (S) even during major occisions in which all Muslims gather, like the days of Id al-fitr and Id al-adha (Lesser Bairam and Greater Bairam). So he has started inquiring some Companions whose, attention was not distracted from remembering Allah and establishing prayer by merchandise or trading, about what used to be recited (from Qura'an) by the propet (S) in Id al- Fitr and Id al adha.
Muslim narrates, in his book Salat al - Idayn, from Ubayd Allah ibn Abd Allah saying: Once "Umar ibn al-kattab asked Abu Waqid al-Lathi about what was God's Messenger (S) reciting (from the Qur'an) in al Adha and al afitr, he replied: he was readng (Qaf. By the Glorious Qur'an) and (the hour drew night and the moon was rent in twain). 22
The same narration is reported by Abu Waqid l-Laythi. 23
By reviewing the testimony of Ubayd Allah and what and that of Abu Waqid al-Laythi, indicating that 'Umar was unaware of the prophet's (S) reading in the Idayn, adding to that his mind has been diverted away of the Qur'an and the Sunnah by making deals through markets, well shall come to know the secrets and enigmas that remained ambiguous and embarrassing for the scholars, like his fatwa commanding the
22. Shih Muslim,vol. iii, p.61, kitab al-salat, bab ma yuqra' bihi fi salat al-'idayn

23. Ibid.

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mujnib (one being ritually impure) who cannot find water, ignoring the rules of Tayammum recommended in the Qur'an and Sunnah, to leave prayer (unpeformed). Added to this his rule concerning kalalah, in which he issued contradicting judgement, despite its being revealed in God's Book, and the elaboration and exposition stated in the Prophetic Sunnah about it. Despite all this, Umar could not comprehend it until he passed away.24
Had umar not exceeded his limits, trying to learn and acquire knowledge for uprooting his ignorance it would have been much better for him, but he thought highly of himself, so he embarked on prohibiting what is ordained as lawful by Allah and His messenger, like enjoyment of Hajj mut at al-hajj morganic marriage mut at al-nisa, and the share of those whose hearts are tobe reconciled: and making lawful what is prohibited by Allah and His Messenger, like his approval of the triple divorce, and spying on Muslims, and other matters.25
For this purpose he and Abu Bakr strove hard, from the begining, to prevent narrating, recording and writing down the prophet's (S) traditions reaching the extent that they ordered the prophetic traditions and Sunnan, aiming at:
First: obliterating the facts about Ali and Ahl al-Bayt, that were uttered by the prophet (S).
Second: in order that they do not come across, in the prophetic texts, any objection to the policy they adopted and the rules for which they exerted their opinions.
Third: hiding the fact that Umar ibn al-khattab was knowing only a little of the prophet's Sunnah.
Al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, in his Musnad has narrated from ibn Abbas his saying that: Umar ibn al-khattab was perplexed as regards doubt in prayer (number of rak'ahs), so he asked his servent saying: O boy have you heard from God's Messenger or any of his Companions what
24. It is reported by al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan, that Umar once askid the Prophet about the inheritance of the grandfather with the brothers. The Pophet replied: Why do you ask about this, O, 'Umar? I believe that you pass away before knowing it. Sa'id ibn al-Musayyad said: 'Umar then died before being aware of it.
25. Refer to al-Nass wa al-ijtihad,by Sharaf al-Din al-Musawi.

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one should do when doubting his prayer ?26
What a suprise is Umar's case, that he being Muslims Caliph while not knowing how to amend his prayer, so he inquires from the lads of the Companions about a matter known by common Muslims and the illiterate amongst them even at present, More surprising than this is the Sunnis claim that Umar was the most knowledgeable amongst the Companions so if their most more knowledgeable one is in this fashion, then do not inqueire about the rest of them.
Remained only a little objection tha t cannot change their rules and exertions ijtihadat nor threatean the interests of Caliphate, like the case of asking permission by Abu musa or refference (istidlal) of ubayy ibn ka'b with a reading not confession as he says: Making deals through markets has diverted my attention o fthis".
How far is this from Ali's saying:
I had a private entrance upon God's Messenger (S ) meeting him twice a day --once in the morning and the other in the evening?"
These meetting ware dedicated only for Ali every morning and evening to which his permanent presence with the prophet( S) in his public meeting's can be added.
'Ali was the nearest and the most intimate private Companion to the prophet (S) since his birthday, He has been brought up and grow up at his lap, where he has been following him like a weanling child following his mother every where, up to Hira' Cave, during descension of revelation (wahy). He sucked the mesenger milk, and was reared on the knowledge of the prophetic Sunnah since it outset.
So who is more superior to the Sunnah than him, and can anyone else claim the right to it, had the equitables been just and the obstainates restorted to truth?
This is the best evidence that he (A) and his followers (Shi'ah) are in fact the symbol of the Muhammad Sunnah,
26. Musnad al-'Imam Ahmad,vol i, p. 190.
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and its renowed heads. But others who have neither followed his guide, nor trodden in his steps, are much father from the Prophetic Sunnah, even if they call themselves "Ahl al-Sunnah" out of neglect and imitation.
We will shed more light on this point in the following chapters within the content of this book, God willing.
The Qur'an says:
O ye who believe! Guard your duty to Allah, and speak words straight to the point. He will adjust your works for you and will forgive you your sind. Whosoever obeyeth Allah and His Messneger, he verily hath gained a signal victory". (33: 70,71)