THE QUR'AN AND SUNNAH IN AHL
AL-SUNNAH 'S PERSPECTIVE
After realizing the Shi'ah view regarding the Qur'an, that they prefer it over the Sunnah, making it the judge and supervisor over it, Ahl al-Sunnah have proven to be the opposite of them, as they prefer the Sunnah over the Qur'an, regarding it the judge and supervisor over it.
The conclusion we get here is their calling themselves Ahl al-Sunnah, stems from this principle they have invented. Otherwise why haven't they chosen the name of Ahl al-Qur'an wa al-Sunnah, especially that they narrate in their books that the Prophet has said: I am leaving behind among you the Book of Allah and my Sunnah?
Since they have neglected the Qur'an, placing it in the second degree, adhering to alleged sunnah and giving it the first rank, we came to know the main reason behind their saying that the Sunnah being the judge over the Qur'an. This in fact is an amazing thing, and probably they have been obliged to such a claim when observing their practising acts contradictory to the precepts of the Qur'an, being accustomed to them after being imposed upon them by the rulers whom they have followed. For justifying these practices, they have fabricated traditions ascribing them to the Prophet (S), but when observing these traditions being incongruous with the Qur'an, they have resorted to claiming that the Sunnah overrules or abrogate the Qur'an.
I cite here example for an act being practised by every Muslim several times a day, that is the ablution before prayers, as stated in the holy Qur'an : "O ye who believe! When ye rise up for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and lightly rub your heads and your feet up to the ankles ".(5:6) And regardless of all opinions and readings: with
( 250 )
fathah over or kasrah under lam of the word arjul (feet), we have mentioned that al-Fakhr al-Razi- the most renowned Sunni grammarian in Arabic language -has adopted wiping (mash) in both the readings.255
Ibn Hazm has also said: Wheather it is read with kasrah or fathah, it is anyhow regarded joined to the heads, either on pronunciation or place, with no any other alternative.256
But after al-Fakhr al-Razi's admission of the Qur'an's being revealed with the obligation of wiping (mash)in both the readings, we find him to be a fanatic for his Sunni creed, saying: But the Sunnah has called formash, abrogating the Qur'an.257
There are many more example claimed by Ahl al-Sunnah for this alleged Sunnah, overruling and abrogating the Qur'an, as they have fabricated numerous traditions invalidating God's rules, with the pretext the Messenger of Allah has abrogated it.
If we contemplate into the verse of ablution in Surat al-Ma'idah, taking into consideration the Muslims'unanimity (ijma') that this surahbeing the last one revealed in the Qur'an, and it is even said that it was revealed only two months before the Prophet's demise, so how and when has the prophet (S) abrogated the rule of ablution?! And while the Prophet (S) has persisted for twenty-three years in performing ablution with mash, several times a day, how can it be reasonable then that he, two months before his death and after revelation of the Almighty's saying: ''....and lightly rub your heads and your feet'', has embarked in washing his feet in opposition to the Book of Allah? It is an incredible story.
How can people believe in this Prophet, who invites them for adhering to the Book of Allah, saying: This Qur'an verily guides unto that which is straihgtest, but contrradicting it himself? Is this reasonable or can be sensed by sane people? Or his opponents, with the polytheists and hypocitesmay
255. Al-Fakhr al-Razi, al-Tafsir al-kabir, vol. xi, p.161.
256. Ibn Hazm, al-Muhalla, vol. iii, p.54.
257. Al-Fakhr al-Razi op. cit, vol. xi, p. 161.
( 251 )
argue him by saying: If you yourself contradict the Qur'an in you deeds, so how do you allow yourself to command us to follow it? Thereat the Prophet (S) will be embrrassed, being unable to refute their argument. Therefore we never believe this claim, which is rejected by narration and reason ('aql), and by whoever having cognisance of the Book and the Sunnah.
But Ahal al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah, who being in fact the Umayyad rulers and their followers, have fabricated many tradittions ascribing them to the prophet, with the aim of confirming the opinions and verdicts of the leaders of deviation, imparting religious legitimacy upon them, justifying their acts by claiming that the Prophet (S) himself has practised ijtihad against the Qur'anic texts, abrogating of them as desired by him. In this way Ahl al-bida' (followers of heresies) seek legitimamacy for their contradiction to the texts (nusus),following allegedly and falsily the guide of the Messenger(S).
We have previously proved with indisputable evidences and arguments, that the Messenger to Allah (S) has never exerted his opinion or adopted qiyas, but has veen waiting for the descending of revelaion, fulfilling God's commandment:''.... that thou mayst judge between mankind by that which Allah showth thee.(4:105)258
Hasn't he (S) disclosed God's words: ''And when Our clear revelations are recited unto them, they who look not for the meeting with Us say: Bring a Lecture (Qur'an) other then this, or my own ccord. I only follw that which is inspired in me. Lo! if I disobey my Lord I fear the retribuion of an awful Day''. (10:15)? Hasn't his Lord threatened him with the severest retributtion should he ascribe even one word to Allah, when He -- the Exalted, the Glorious-- said: '' And if he had invented false sayings concerning Us, We assurredly had taken him by the right hand. And then secerred his life-artery. And not one of you could have held Us off from him''. (69:44--47)?
258. Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. viii, p.148.
( 252 )
Such is the Qur'an, and this being the Prophet whose morals incarnate the Qur'an, but Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah,259, due to their intense hostility against 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and Ahl al-Bayt (A), have been contradicting them in every thing, to the extent that contradicting 'Ali and his Shi'ah in all rules, has become their motto even if the established proof be with them. 260
As al-'Imam 'Ali has been known of raising his voice in reciting the basmalah even in the silent prayers, for the sake of reviving the Prophetic Sunnah, some of his opponents have given verdict, about reprehensibility of this practice in prayers. The same is also applied upon gathering the hands (qabd) and extending them, and supplication in qunut, beside other matters related to the daily prayers.
Therefore Anas ibn Malik used to weep and say: By God, I never see anything practiced by the prophet (s) in the past. When he was asked: What about this prayer? he replied: You have changed all its rules.261 The strange point about Ahl al-Sunnah lies in the their keeping silent in regard of these differences due to the presence of disagreement among their four schools (madhahib), finding thus no harm in this regard, and rather saying that their disagreement being a blessing.
But when being disapproved by the Shi'ah in any issue, they (sunnis) start to revile them, rendering this mercy into indignation, adopting only the opinions of their Imams, though being incomparable with the Imams of the Pure Kindered, in respect of knowledge, conduct, virtue and honour.
As mentioned about wishing the feet, and though their: (Ahl al-Sunnah's) books testify that mash being revealed in the Qur'an and performed by the Prophet (S) as a sunnah,262 they never approve of the Shi'ah anything accusing them with interpreting the Qur'an and being out of the pale of religion.
The second instance to be cited here is the temporary marriage (mut'ah) in regard of which a Qur'anic verse was revealed, and has been ordained by the Prophetic Sunnah. For
259. By them we mean the earlier ones who made a covenant with 'Ali and his sons afterwards, and who founded the school of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah.
260. We have celeberated this, and reported their expressions from their books and Imams' sayings in Ma'a al-Sadiqin.
261. Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. i, p.74.
262. Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra , vol. vi, p.191.
( 253 )
justifying 'Umar's ijtihad who has forbddin it, they have fabricated a false hadith ascribing it to the Prophet (S), beside reviling the Shi'ah for for permitting this kind of marriage in accordance with al-Imam 'Ali's narration. Added to this, their Sihah testify its being practised by the Sahabah during the eras of the Prophet and Abu Bakr, with portion of 'Umar's time before forbidding it. They also testify that there used to be disagreement among the Sahabah, some permitting it (mut'ah) and some forbidden.
There are many other instances proving their abrogating the Qur'an text with a false hdith, but we suffice with these two for disclosing how Ahl al Sunnah prefer hadith over the Qur'an, expressing that the Sunnah is overruling the Qur'an.
We can refer to al-'Imam al-faqih 'Abd Allah ibn Muslim ibn Qutaybah, the muhaddith and faqih of Ahl al-Sunnah (d. 276 H), who expressly says: ''The Sunnah is overruling the Book, not the opposite''.263
The author of the book Maqalat al-'Islamiyyin has reported from al-'Imam al-'Ash'ari-- Ahl al- Sunnah's Imam in usul--his saying: "The Sunnah abrogated more than the Sunnah is of the Qur'an and overrule it, but the Qur'an cannot abrogate the Sunnah or overrule it".264
On the authority of Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, it is reported from al-'Imam al-'Awza'i -a great Sunni 'alim-that he said: "The Qur'an is in need of the Sunnah more than the Sunnah of the Qur'an...265
When their sayings be a witness against their creed, it is intuitive to find disagreement between their sayings and those of Ahl al-Bayt, who expose and weigh very hadith with the Qur'an, since is the Qur'an is overruling the Sunnah. Also their rejection to those traditions and disapproving them- though narrated by Ahl al-Bayt -being natural since they (traditions) dissipate their creed thoroughly.
In the book Dala'il al-Nubuwwah (Evidences of
263. Sunan al-Darimi, vol. i, p. 145; Ibn Qutaybah, Ta'wil muktalif al-hadith, p.199.
264. Maqalat al-'Islamiyyin, vol. i, p.3.
265. Jami' bayan al-'ilm, vol. ii, p.234.
( 254 )
Prophethood), al-Bayhaqi states that the hadith reported from the Prophet (S) which reads: "If you hear any hadith reported from me, you should subject it on the Book of Allah", is false and incorrect, testifying its falsehood by itself, as there is no indication in the Qur'an expressing the exposure of the hadith on the Qur'an.
Ibn 'Abd al-Barr has reported from 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi his saying, that the hadith reported from the Prophet (S) as he said: "You have to subject whatever reported from me on the Book of Allah: that which agrees with it, is said by me, and that which disagrees with is never said by me" cannot be accepted by men of knowledge as a means for distinguishing the sahih hadith from the false one, and this hadith has been fabricated by the Zanadiqah and Khawarij.266
What a blind fanaticism overwhelming these people, leaving before them no way for conducting scientific investigation or submittin to Truth, making them call the narrators of this hadith as Zanadiqah and Khawarij, accusing them with fabrication of hadith, though they be in fact Imams of guidance!
Are we to ask them: What goal the Zanadiqah and Khawarij intended to reach from composing this hadith making the Book of Allah- which falsehood cannot come from at it from before it or from behind it-as a reference for everything?
Then inclining of an equitable sane man towards such people (Zanadiqah and Khawarij) who glorify the Book of Allah, making it the first source of legislation, does him more good than inclination toward Ahl al-Saunnah wa al-Jam'ah who overrule the Book of Allah through false traditions, abrogating its rules by alleged innovations.
The holy Qur'an says about them: "Dreadful is the word that cometh out of their mouths. They speak naught but a lie".(18:5) This being their real nature as those called by them Zanadiqah and Khawarij, are in fact the Prophet's Household,
266. Ibid, vol. ii, p.233.
( 255 )
Imams of guidance and beacons for darkness, who are described by their grandfather the Messenger of Allah (S) as being the safety for the Ummah against disagreement, and any tribe contradicts them shall be reckoned as Iblis party. Their only faul being adherence to the Prophet's Sunnah, rejecting everything other than it including the innovations of Abu Bukr, 'Umar, Uthman, 'Mu'awiyah, Yazid, Marwan, and Umayyads. Since these people have been seizing power, so they maturally used to slander their opponents with titles like Zanadiqah and Khawarij, declaring war against them. Haven't they reviled Ali and Ahl al-Bayt from over their pulpits for eighty years? Haven't they killed l-Hasan by poison and his progeny by their sword?
Apart from the tragedy of Ahl Bayt, whose grievance is never ending, we return to those calling themselves Ahl al-Sunnah wa la-jama'ah, and denying the hadith about subjecting the Sunnah on the Qur'an and question them: Why haven't they counted Abu Bakr among the Khawarij or Zanadiqah? Hasn't he burnt the (Prophet's) ahadith and addressed people saying: ''You report from he Messenger of Allah, traditions about which differ, that people be in more anarchy after you. So do not narrate anything from the Messenger of Allah, and whenever asked about anything you can say: The Book of Allah is between us and you, you can permit its halal and its haram.267
Hasn't Abu Bakr preferred the Qur'an over the Sunnah? Hasn't he made the Qur'an he only source (of legislaion), rejecting the Sunnah witth the pretext of presence of disagreement in its regard?!
Why haven't they counted 'Umar ibn al-Khattab among the Khawarij or Zanadiqah, due to his rejecting the Prophetic Sunnah from the first day of his rule, when he said: We are sufficed wih he Book of Allah? He has also set to fire all the traditions and conducts compiled by the Sahabah in his time,268 transgressing this boundary to prevent the Sahabah
267. Al-Dhahabi, Tadhkirat al-huffaz, vol. i, p.3.
268. Kanz al-'ummal, vol. v, p.237k, Ibn Kathir; al-Dhahabi, op. cit, vol. i, p.5.
( 256 )
from disseminating the hadith.269
Why haven't they counted 'A'ishah- from whom half he religion is taken - among he Khawarij and Zanadiqah, as she was known of exposing evey hadih in the Qur'an? Whenever hearing any hadih unknown by her, she would subject it in the Qur'an, denying it if opposing the Qur'an. She has disaproved 'Umar's hadith: ''The dead is tormented in his grave due to the weeping of his family'', saying: ''nor doth any laden bear another's load.. 270
She has also disapproved 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar's ahadith, who has reported that the Prophet (S) stood at the graveyard of the polytheists slain in the Badr Battle, and addressed them, then he turned his face towards his Companions saying: ''They verily hear by utterance''.
But she has denied that the dead can hear what is said to them, saying: What the Prophet said is thus: ''They verily know that I am telling them is the truth'', citing as evidence for this by esposing the hadith on the Qur'an, reading the Almighty's sayings: ''Lo! thou canst not make the dead to hear'' (27:80) and ''Thou canst not reach those who are in the graves''.(35:22) 271
She has refuted many ahadith, after exposing them in the Book of Allah. Once she said to someone who reported that Muhammad has seen his Lord: My hair has bristled for what you have said, what is your position in relation to three cases, about whichever one tells you has lied: "whoever tells you that Muhammad has seen his Lord is a lair", reciting then the verse: "Vision comprehendeth Him not, but He comprehendeth (all vision). He is the subtile, the Aware", (6:103) and the verse: "And it was not (vouchful) to any mortal that Allah should speak to him unless (it be) by revelation or from behind a veil". (42:51) And whoever tells you that he (Prophet) has pre-knowledge of what is going to be tomorrow is a liar", and recited: ''No soul koweth what it will earn
269. Al-Dhahabi, op, cit, vol.i, p.4.
270. Sahih al-Bukhari, kitab al-jana'iz, bab al-Nabi yu'adhdhab, al-mayyit bi ba'd buka' ahlihi 'alayh; and sahih Muslim, the same bab.
( 257 )
tomorrow''.(31:34) ''And who tells you that he has conceled (the truth) is liar'', reciting the holy verse: ''O Messenger Make known that which hath been reveled unto thee from thy Lord''.(6:67)
So also was the case with Abu Hurayarah, as so often he used to narrate a hadith, saying afterwards: ''If you wish you can read the Almighty's saying'', exposing then his hadith on the Book of Allah for making the audience believe him.
What prevents Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-jama'ah from calling all these people Zanadiqah and Khwarij, as they also expose the traditions on the Book of Allah, denying whichever disagrees with the Qur'an? They dare not to do this, but when it concerns the Imam of Ahl al- Bayt, they never disdain from disgracing them with every blemish, striving to cripple and invlidate Allah's rules by false ahadith, be disclosed for all, due to their awareness of the fact that when their ahadith be subjected on the Book of Allah, nine-tenth of them will verily disagree with it. The one-tenth left, that agrees with the Book of Allah, includes the Prophet's sayings, some of which are interpreted in contrariety with what intended by the Prophet (S), like their interpretation of the hadith ''The successors (caliphs) after me are twelve, all being from Quraysh ''and the hadith: ''Hold in to the sunnah (conduct) of al-Khulaf' al-Rashidun after me'', and also his (S) saying:''Disagreement among my Ummah is a mercy''. Beside other holy traditions uttered by the Prophet (S) in regaard of the Pure Progeny (A), but Ahl al-Sunnah have diverted them to their surping Caliphs and some reversible Companions.
Even the titles they impart upon the Sahabah, like ''alSddiq'' for Abu Bakr, ''a,Faruq'' for 'Umar, ''Dhu al-Nurayn'' for Uthman, and ''Sayf Allah'' for Khalid are in fact ascribed to al-'Imam 'Ali by the Prophet (S) as he (S) has said once: ''Al-Sddiqun (the Truthful) are only three: Habib
( 258 )
al-Najjar the beliver of Al Yasin, Hizqail the beliver of Pharaoh's household and and 'Ali ibn abi Talib (A), who is the best of them''.272
'Ali himself used to say: ''I am the biggest siddiq (truthful), and whoever claims it (title) after me is but a liar''. He is also the gretest Faruq, with whom Allah has separated between Truth and falsehood,273 and it is him in whose regard the Prophet (S) said: To love him is faith (iman), and truth be always wherever he be.
In respect of the tittle "Dhu al-Nurayn",274 we can say that he (A) is the father of al-Hasan and al-Husayn (A) --the two masters of heavens youth and the two lights sprung from the lions of Prophethood. Regarding "Sayf Allah", it is 'Ali who has been addressed by Jabriel (A) as: "No guy (fata) is (there) but 'Ali and no sword is but Dhu al-Faqar". He is truly the sword of Allah Who has unshealthed it against the polythiests, killing with it their heroes, bringing to the ground ther valiants, and subduing the till compelling them to surrender to truth though being averse fled any battle, and never feared combating at all, and it was him who has conquered and opened Khaybar, from which the chiefs of Sahabah failed short and retreated after being routed.
The Caliphs' policyhas been established, from the outset, upon secluding 'Ali and depriving him from all excellences and virtues. But Mu'awiyah, on coming to power, has transgressed all boundaies though embarking on reviling and defaming 'Ali, beside elevating the rank of his opponents, ascribing to them all his excellences and titles falsity. Who could at that time disapprove or oppose him? The Sunni is have agreed with him on slandering, cursing and disavowing 'Ali, beside reversing all the realities upside down, that good (ma'ruf) was regarded by them as evil (munkar) and evil as good. They have also considered 'Ali and his Shi'ah as Zanadiqah, Khawrij and Rawafid, permtting thus reviling and
272. Shawahid al-tanzil by al-Hasakani, vol.ii, p.223; Ghayat al-maram' p. 417; al-Riyad al-nadirah, vol.ii, p.202.
273. Ta'rikh al-Tabari, fi Islam 'Ali; Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. i, p. 44; Kahasa'is al-Nasa'i: Mustadrak al-Hakim, vol. iii, p.112.
274.Ahl al-Sunnah call 'Uthman: Dhu al-Nuryan, with the reason that he got married to Ruqayyah and Umm kulthum, the two daughters of the Prophet, while the truth is that they being his step-daughters. Supposedly they were his daughters, how could they be two lights (nurayn) while no virtue was mention by the Prophet for them. Why couldn't Fatimah be the light, in whose regard the prophet said: The lady of all worlds women, is the light, and why haen't they called Ali (Dhu al-Nur) on this basis?
( 259 )
slaying them, while the enemies of Allah and His Messenger and his Household have turned to be Ahl al-Sunnah! It really a wonderful world, and if anyone doubts this he can investigate and seek the truth.
The holy Qur'an states:
''The similitude of the two parties is the blind and the deaf and and the seer and the hearer. Are they equal in similitude? Will ye not then be admonished?'' (11:24)
( 260 )
PROPHETIC TRADITIONS ARE CONTRADICTORY
AMONG AHL AL-SUNNAH
Some of the sunan may be ascribed to the Prophet (S), whereas in fact they being but heresies innovated by some of the Companions after his demise, compelling people to follow and adhere to, making to concieve that these sunan being the Prophet's acts and sayings.
Hence most of these heresies are known to be contradictory to the Qur'an, leading their (Ahl al-Sunnah's) 'ulama' to interpret, claiming that the Messenger has done this thing once and that one another time. An axample for this is their saying that he (S) has once prayed with basmalah and another time without it, wiping his feet once and washing another gathering his hands once and letting hem down another, to the extent that some of them have opined his doing so being deliberate for the sake of easiness for his Ummah, enabling every individual to select the practice that suits him.
It is a mere lie rejected by Islam which founded its doctrines on the word of montotheism and unity of worship, even in appearance and clothing. As it has nevr permitted the muhrim during the time of hajj to wear whatever he likes, in respect of form and colour, not allowing the one led in prayer (ma'mum) but to follow his imam in all movements and practice including standing, bowing, prostration and sitting.
This being false too since the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt (A) rejected such narrations, with disapproving any difference in rituals (ibadat) in regard of shape and content.
If we intend to refer to all the contradictions of Ahl al-Sunnah's traditions, we find them great in number, that covering them needs a seperate book, to be compiled later on.
We refer to some examples briefly to demostrate to
( 261 )
the truth-seeker, the basis on which Ahl al-Sunnah have founded their school and doctrine.
It is reported in Sahih Muslim, and Sharh al-Muwatta' by Jalal al-Din al-Sayuti, from Anas ibn Malik that he said: I have prayed behind the Messenger of Allah (S), Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman never hearing any of them reciting: In the Name of Allah, Beneficent the Merciful.
In another narration, it is reported that the Prophet (S) has never raised his voice in reading the basmalah, and he (Anas) said: This hadith is reported by Anas Qatadah and Thabit al-Banani and others, all mentioning its chain of transmission and referrng to the Prophet ((S), but with a great difference in respect of its words, as some of them said: They have never raised their voice in reading it, some said that they used to raised their voice, some said that they used to begin their prayer with "praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of all words".
He said: This being a confusion for which no proof (hujjah) can be established by any of the fuqaha'.275
Should anyone desire to know the real secret behind this contradiction and confusion, he can get this from the narrator himself, being Anas ibn Malik who used to be in the company of the Prophet (S) as he was his usher. This is feasible when noticing that he once narrates that they--the Prophet and Three caliphs --have never been reciting the basmalah, and another time says they have left it.
It is but the bitter and regretful fact, that was followed by most of the Sahabah in transmitting and narrating the hadith, according to the requirement of the politicl convinience, and in the way that pleases the rulers.
He has undoubtedly reported their non-reading the basmalah, when the Umayyads did their best to alter the Prophet's Sunnah entirely, whereas 'Ali ibn Abi Talib has been adhering to and reviving it. The Umayyad's policy was
275. Tanwir al-hawalik, a sharh for Muwatta Malik, vol. i, p.103.We say: Praise be to Allah that a witness from among of them (opponents) has testified about the confusion of the ahadith among them and their contradiction, and that, as confessed by him, no hujjah can be established for an y of them, but it be with the Pure guidance Imams (A), who have never differed in anything.
( 262 )
founded contradicting 'Ali (A) in all his practices, as he (A) has been known of raising his voice loudly in the silent prayers. This being not just a claim from our side or by the Shi'ah, as we have depended in proving our claim on the books and utterance of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah
After the contradicting narrations of Anas ibn Malik, al-'Imam al-Nisaburi reports, in his book Tafsir Ghara'ib al-Qur'an, saying: "There is another charge, that Ali (may God be pleased with him) used to exaggerate in raising his voice in the basmalah, and during the Umayyads' reign they have exaggerated in preventing this practice, in an attempt to obliterate every trace for 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, so he (Anas) may have feared them and that is why his saying have been confused''. 276
A similar statement is reported to have been said by al-Shaykh Abu Zahrah when he said: ''There should have been an effect by the Umayyad rule leading to effacement of a lot of 'Ali's traces in adjudication and issuing verdicts (ifta~'), since it is unreasonable to cursse 'Ali from over the pulpits, while allowing --on the other side-- the 'ulama' to disseminate his knowledge and convey his fatawa and utterances to people, especially those ralated to the foundation of the Islamic rule''.277
Praise be for Allah Who has made truth disclosed through their 'ulama', who have confessed expressely that 'Ali used to exaggerate in raising his voice when reciting the basmalah.
We conclude here that the reason which led 'Ali (A) to raise his voice loudly in reading the basmalah, lies in the fact that the precedent Caliphs have left it either deliberately or forgetfully, the practice that has been followed by people rendering it a followed sunnah, which definately invalidates the salat (prayer) if left deliberately. Otherwise al-'Imam 'Ali has not resorted to exaggerate in raising his voice in reading it even in the silent prayers.
276. Al-Nisaburi, Tafsir ghra'ib al-Qur'an, with a marginal note of Tafsir, vol. i, p.77.
277. Al-Shaykh Abu Zuhrah, Kitab al-'Imam al-Sadiq, p. 161.
( 263 )
Then what we sense from Anas's narrations is only sycophancy with the aim of pleasing Banu Umayyah, who have flattered him, giving him abudantly and building for him splendid palaces. All this being due to his opposition and hatred agains Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali (A), which has been manifested cleary in the story of the roasted fowl, when the Prophet (S) said: "My God, send me Your most beloved creature to share me in eating this fowl, thereafter 'Ali came and asked permission to enter, but was repelled by Anas three times. In the fourht time, the Prophet came to be aware of the matter, whereat he said to Ansa: What made you do the thing you did? Anas replied: I hoped that the one you meant be one from among the Ansar.278
Enough be for this Sahabi to hear the Prophet implore his Lord to send him His dearest creature, a prayer that was granted by Allah through 'Ali's coming. But Anas's detestation (against Ali) made his falsify the truth, repelling Ali with the claim that he (Anas) has been summoned by the Porphet (S), for three consecutive times, since he never killed His Messenger. In the fourth time, Ali has broken into the house, and the Prophet (S) asked him: What kept you from coming in O 'Ali? He replied I have to see you but was repelled by Anas three times. The he (S) turned his face toward Anas and asked him: What made you do do O Anas? He said: O the Messenger of Allah, I have heard your supplication and desired that he (one you invite) be one of my folk.
We are then told by history books that Anas has kept on detesting al-'Imam 'Ali (A) throughout all his life, though it was himwho has been asked by 'Ali on the Day of Rahbah to testify the hadith of al-Ghadir, but he has concealed the testimony, wheareat 'Ali (S) has invoked evil upon him, after which he turned to be leprous. How can't Anas be among the opponents of 'Ali (A) while he hates him and shows inclination toward his enemies through proclaiming disavowal
278. It is reported by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, saying: It is sahih according to the condition laid by the two Shaykhs (al-Bukhari and Muslim); Sahih al-Tirmidhi, vol. ii, p.299; al-Tabari, al-Riyad al-nadirfah, vol. ii, p.160; Ta'rikh Baghdad, vol.iii, p. 171; kanz al-'ummal, vol.vi, p.406; al-Nahj, vol. i, p.283.
( 264 )
Thus his narration regarding the basmalah came to be full of loyalty for Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, when he said: "I have prayed behind that he has never accepted to pray behind Uthman, meaning that he has never accepted to pray behind Ali. It is exactly the case desired by Mu'awiyah and his followers, being the elevation of the remembrance of the three caliphs and effacement of Ali's remembrance with preventing the mention of his name.
Since it has been proved though the Imam of the Prophet's kindered and their followers (Shia'h) that Ali (A) used to raise his voice in reciting al-Fatimah and the nest surah, and by ahl al-sunnah wa al-jam'ah that he used to raise his voice even in the silent prayers, so it is confirmed to be the right sunnah. Whoever forsakes it has in fact forsaken an obligatory act and invalidated his prayer, as contradicting the sunnah I but a deviation (dalal), and whatsover the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatsover he forbids you, abastain (from it)
Then we raise several points against the sahabah's narrations which contradict the Prophet's sunnah, of which some examples we have mentioned earlier, and some others we shall cite later on. That which concerns us here is to know that ahl al-sunnah wa al-Jam'ah follow the example of the Companions' sayings and acts.
First: Their believing tht their sayings and acts constitute and binding sunnah.
Second: Their miscalculation that all is said or done by the Sahabah cannot be contradictory to the Prophetic Sunnah, as the Sahabah used to judge according to their opinions and ascribe everything to the Prophet (S), aiming at influencing the people's minds and be safe from opposition of those who disagreed with them.
The only opposer being 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (A), who used to stive hard, during his caliphate time, to restore people
( 265 )
to the Prophetic sunnah through his sayings, acts and adjucication. But all this was as they have buside him in fierce wars, one after the other al-Jamal, Siffen and al-Nahrawan, and then they have assassinated him while being in the prayer niche.
Then the caliphate was seixed by Mu'awiyah, whose only concern has been concentrated upon extinguishing God's light, so he tried all his best to obliterate the Prophet's Sunnah that was revived by al-Imam 'Ali (A). Then Mu'awiyah has restored people to the Caliphs' heresies (bida'), especially those ones enacted by him, beside reviling and cursing 'Ali (A) so that no one could remember him but only with shameful remembrance.
Al-Mada'ini has reported that some companions have come to Mu'awiyah saying to him: "O Amir al-Muminin, 'Ali is dead, and nothing is left before you to fear, would you abandon cursing him? Mu'awiyah replied: Never, by God, till the old become aged and the yound become old upon following this practice.
Al-Mada'ini says: So they (the Umayyads) continued this habit for generations, teaching their children at day-schools, and their wives and slaves to follow the suit. Mu'awiyah has attained great success in his scheme, as he managed in secluding the Islamic Ummah (except a little number) from its true guardian and leader, compelling the towards harbouring hostility against him and declaring freedom from him. Morever he has cheated them by obscuring truth with falsehood, making them to believe in their being the true Ahl al-Sunah, and that whoever befreinds Ali being Kharijite and heretic.
While seeking God's nearness be attained through slandering and cursing al-'Imam 'Ali (A) from over the pulpits, so what about the Shi'ah who have followed him? They have been deprived their dues from bayt al-mal, their houses have been burnt, they have been crucified on trunks of trees, and
( 266 )
buried alive. No might or power is but from Allah, the Sublime the Great.
I view Mu'awiyah as only a ring of a chain of the great conspracy, and one of its chapters, but he has excelled others in obliterating the realities and reversing them upside down, and restorting the Ummah to the Pre-Islamic period (Jahiliyyah) under the garb of Islam.
It is to be noted that he has been more sagacious than the precedent caliphs, as he used to be a skilled actor fulfilling his role very well. Sometimes he would weep to affect the attendants, making them to believe in his being one of the solemn ascetics and devotes, and other times he would show hard-heartedness and arrogance to the extent that the attendants believed him to be the biggest athiest, and the bedouin believed him be the messenger of Allah!
Through the following letter sent to him by Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, and his reply to it, we can recognize his cunningness and sagacity, beside other facts necessary to be mediated by researchers.