DESPOTIC RULERS HAVE APPOINTED
AHL AL-SUNNAH IMAMS
The proof indicating that the Imam of four schools of Ahl al-Sunnah, have also contradicted the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the prophet, who commanded them to hold fast to the pure Itrah lies in the fact no one of them has conceded and get into their ark, and recognized the Imam of his time.
For instance, Abu Hanifah, thought being a disciple of al-Imam al-Sadiq, and was known of having said:" Had not the two years been there, al-Nu'man would have perished", has innovated a creed (madhhab) based of sophism (qiyas) and exerting the opinion against explicit texts (nusus)
Malik, who acquired knowledge under al-Imam al-Sadiq (A), and from whom it is narrated: "No eye has sighted, and no ear has heard, and no heart has ever thought of a human being more knowlwdgeable and more jurisprudential (afqah) than Ja'far al-Sadiq", has also innoveted an Islamic school, abondoning the Imam of his time, about whom he testifies himself that he was the most knowledgeable man in his era. The Abbasid rulers have suggestd to his mind, calling him "Imam Dar al Hijirah (Imam of migration house), after which Malik became a man of high status, influence, power and might.
Al-shafi'i too, who is accused of following the guide of Ahl al-Bayt, after saying in their regard the following the guide of Ahl al-Bayt, after saying in their regard the following well-known verses:
O the prophet's Household, your love,
Is an obligation from Allah revealed in the Qur'an,
You are sufficed with having virtue that,
The prayer of one never saying benediction upon you
( 79 )
is not accepted. Also the following line is ascribed to him:
If loving Al-Muhammad is a rejection (rafd)
Then thaqalayn bear witness I am Rafidi
If the thaqalayn bear witness of his being a Rafidi, so why hasn't he rejected the schools that were established in opposition to Ahl al-Bayt, but instead he innoveted a school by his name, abandonning the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt to his time?
After that comes the turn of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, who acknowledge 'Ali as the fourth caliph, adding his name to the Guided Caliphs after he was negated, compiling in his regard kitab al-fada'il book of vertues) and being known of saying: "The veracious Asanid (sihah ) have never reported virtues for any Companion as those ascribed to Ali (may God be pleased with him)"
Despite all this, he has innovated a school in Islam called the Hanbali school, though all his contemporary ulama confirm his not being a faqih. Abu Zuhrah has said in his regard: "Ahmad ibn Hanbal was not regerded among the fuqaha by numerous ealier historians, like Ibn Qutaybah, and Ibn Jarir al-Tabari and others"82
Then came Ibn Taymiyyah who held the standard of the Hanbali school, adding to it some new theories that prohibit visiting the graves and building over them, and beseeching the prophet and Ahl al-Bayt, regarding these acts as forms of polytheism.
This is the reality of the four schools, and this is the nature of their Imams, and the sayings ascribed to them in regard of the pure progeny of Ahl al-Bayt.
They either say that which they do not (do), which is most hateful in the sight of Allah, or may be these schools have not been innovated by these Imams, but their followers, the stooges of the Ummayyads and Abbasids, have founded those schools with the Support of the despotic rulers, and then ascribed them (school) to them after their death, the details of which will be disclosed in the coming chapters.
82. Kitab Abmad ibn Hanbal, by Abu Zuhra, p.170.
( 80 )
Isn't it surprising that these Imams who lived in the time of the Imam of guidance from Ahl al-Bayt, but then shunnd their straight path and were neither guided by their guidance, nor have acquired from their light, nor giving precedence to their hadith about their grandfather the Messenger of Allah (S) but they preferred to them the Jew Archbishop (Ka'b al-ahbar), and Abu Hurayrah al-Dusi about whom Amir al-Mu'minin Ali (A) has said: "The biggest liar same statement is also reported from A'ishah, the daughter of Abu Bakr.
They also preferred to them Abd Allah ibn Umar, the (nasibi) who was known of his intense harted towards al-Imam Ali, and refrained from acknowledging him and achnowledged instead the leader of deviation-- al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, Further they preferred to them Amr ibn al-As, who was Mua'wiyah 's vizier for froud and hypocrisy.
Don't you wonder how could these Imam grant themselves the right to legislate in God;s religion according to their opinions and ijtihadat till they obliterated the prophetic Sunnah with the heresies they innovated like qiyas sophism), itishab (companionship), cloing gate of pretexts, and masalih musalah (delegated interests), and other alike heresies of them for which no warrant from Allah has been revealed?
Has Allah and His Messenger neglected to perfect the religion, permitting them to make it perfect with their ijtihadat, being free to make lawful and prohibit, a they like?
Aren't you astonished at the Muslims claiming to hold fast to the "Sunnah" how to imitate men never being aware of the prophet not he recognozed them?!
Do they have any evidence from the book of Allah, or the sunnah of His prophet, for following and imitating those four Imams, leaders of the school?!
I challenged the thaqalayn of mankind and jinn to
( 81 )
bring forward from Allah's Book or His prophet's Sunnah one evidence for their conduct. I swear by God, they can't and will never produce any evidence though they were helpers one of the another.
No by God, there is no evidence in the Book of Allah, or in His prophet's Sunnah, but that which calls for following and imitating the pure Imams, of the prophet's progeny (God's benediction be upon him and them). For this there are numerous evidences, irrefutable arguments and glaring realites.
The holy Qur'an has stated:
"So learn a lesson O ye who have eyes!'' (59:2)
It also said:
"For indeed it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts, which are within the bosoms, that grow blind"(22:46)
( 82 )
SECRET BEHIND SPREAD
OF SUNNI SCHOOLS
One who pursues history books and the writing of the ancestors, will undaubtedly come to know that the prevalence of four Sunni scchool during those eras, was by the will and mangement of the ruling authoity, and that is why their follower have been in great number, as people follow the religion of their kings.
Also any reseach will see that tens of school have become extinct and dissolved due to not attainting the ruler's consent, like schools of al-'Awza'i Hasan al-Basari, abu Uyaynah, ibn Abi Dhu'ayb and many others.
As example, Layth ibn Sa'd was friend of Malik ibn Anas, and was more knowledgeable and of more fiqh than him, as admitted by al-shafi'i 83 but his school has became extinct and his fiqh has been dissolved and obliterated, due to not attaining the consent of the ruling authority.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal has said: "Ibn Abi Dhu'ayb was superior to Malik ibn Anas, but Malik was more acute in selecting and picking out the men (rijal)"84
If we go through history, we notice that Malik, the school leader, has approached and reconciled with the rulers and followed their guide he became a man of diginity and the well-known scholar, and his school has spread abroad through means of threatening and temptation, especialy in Andalusia, where his disciple Yahaya ibn Yahaya has supported its ruler, become thus one of his closet subjects. That the judges (qudat), and he never assigned anyone to the post of judgeship except the Malikis, of his followmen.
83. Manaqib al-Shafi, p. 524.
84. Tadhkirat al-huffaz, vol. i, p.176.
( 83 )
Further, the reason behind the spread of Abu Hanifah's school after his demise, lies in that Abu Yusuf and al-shaybani, who were followers of Abu Hanifah and his staunchest disciples, were at the same time the closets courties of Harun al-Rashid the Abbasid Caliph, and played an effective rule in stablizing his sovereignty and supporting him, to the extent that he couldn't admit anyone to the post of judgeship and giving legal verdict (futya) but after attaining their approval.
In this way have not appointed anyone for the post of judgeship but that who was following the Abu Hanifah rendering him thus to be the greatest scholar, and making of his school the greatest legal ever followed, though he was charged with disbelief and being zindiq by his contemporary ulama like Ahmed ibn Hanbal and al-Imam Abu al-Hasan Al-'Ash'ari.
The other school that spread and got strength was the Shafi'i school, after it was about to be oblitereted and that was when the despotic uthority supported him. After Egypt was wholly a Shi'i Fatimid country, it turned out to be Shafi'i during the time of salah l-Din al-'Ayyubi, who slew and slaughtered the Shi'ah like female sheep.
The Hanbali school too was to be totally ignored had not the support of the Abbsid authorities been there, during al-Mu'tasim's reign, when Ibn Hanbal withdrew his word about fabrication of the Qur'an, and he became an outstading school during the reign of al-Mutawakkil, the nasib (enemy of Ahl al-Bayt).
The Hanbali school got strength and spread abroad when the colonialist authorities supported al-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab during the past centuary. The letter has made a deal with Al-Sa'ud who immediately becked and supported him, and helped him propagate his school in the Hijaz Arab peninsula.
Then the Hanbali school came to led by three
( 84 )
Imams, the first of whom being Ahmad ibn Hanbali who never claimed of being a faqih, but was a traditionist. The second one was Ibn Taymiyyah, who was called Shaykh al-Islam and revivalist of the Sunnah Mujaddid al-Sunnah), and was charged with impiety by ulama of his time, due to his pronouncing all Muslims to be polytheists, since they used to seek the blesing of and beseech the prophet (S). Then came the turn of Muhammad ibn Abd al-wahhab, the puppet shaped by the British colonialists in the Middle East, during the last century, who in turn did his utmost to revive the Hanbali school throughout the verdicts (fatawas) he got from Ibn Taymiyyah. So Ahmad ibn Hanbal was abandoned and lost his fame since the school has turned to be called by them nowadays the Wahabi school.
Undoubtedly those schools could never spread abroad and attain fame and high rank without the approval and suppport of the rulers.
It daubteless also that all those have decleared their hostility against Ahl al-Bayt, since they were, all the time, of the belief that these people (Ahl al-Bayt) constituted a danger against their very presence, threatening to topple their power and remove their thrones, so they strove always to separating them from the Ummah, degrading them and killing whoever followed their guide.
It is self-evident that those rulers would appoint some sycophant ulama; who would issue verdicts that go in line with their rule and existance, due to the continuous need of people for solutions for their legal (shar'i) matters, and answers for their inquiries. Since rulers of all ages were not awere of the Islamic Law (shari'ah) at all, not apprehending the fiqh, so it was inevitable for them to appoint a court scholar to give verdict on their behalf, misrepresenting the facts for people to think that politics being separate from religion and they are two incongrous concepts.
Thus the ruling caliph was statesmant and
( 85 )
religion faqih, as practised nowadays by the President of any Islamic country, as he appoints one of the Ulama; close to the government, calling him the mufti of the republic, or any similar title, assingning him the responsibility of looking into affairs of futya (issuing verdicts), rituals (ibadat) and religious rites. In fact this man is not allowed to give any verdict or rule but as dictated by the ruling authority, and in the way that pleases the ruler, or at least does not contradict the policy of the government, and the Execution of its projects and plans.
This phenomenon has, in fact, emerged since the era of the Three Caliphs: AbuBakr, Umar and Uthman. Though they have not separated between religion and State (politics), but they granted themselves the right to ligistlate in a way that complie with the Caliphate interests with maintaining its diginity and perpetuity.
Since these Three Caliphs had company with the prophets (S), so they acquired from him some conducts (sunan) never contradicting their policy.
Mua'wiyah, according to the most authentic narrations, never embraced Islam but only in the ninth year of Hijrah, His company with prophet was too short, knowing nothing of his sunnah, so he had no choice but to appoint Abu Hurayrah and Amr ibn As with some other Companions, assigning them the task of giving fatwas that complied with his desires.
This "praisworthy sunnah" or this good horesy" was followed after him by the Umayyads and Abbasids, so beside avery ruler there used to be a cheif judge (qadi al-qudat) entrusted in turn with the task of appointing the judges deemed by him fit to serve the state, and strive to support and back it. Needless to say what was the nature of those judges seeking who appointed them.
Hence we can realize the secret behind secluding the Infallible Imams, of whom no one, throughout ages, had been
( 86 )
appointed by those rulers or been granted the badge of ifta (giving verdict)
If we intend to investigate further about how the four Sunni scholar could spread by the rulers, we have to cite for this, one example through unveiling the fact of al-Imam malik's school, which is considered the most widely spread, greatest in rank and widest school in fiqh. Malik got his fame through his book al-Muwattah; which he authored himself, and is deemed by Ahl al-Sunna has the most authentic book after the Book of Allah, and some scholar consider it even more authentic and superior than the Sahih al-Bukhari.
Malik's fame has excelled all others, till it was said: 'Can anyone give fatwa while Malik being in al-Madinah?" He was called the Imam of migration house.
It is inevitable to mention that Malik gave a legal verdict in forbidding allegiance by coercion, for which Ja'far ibn Sulayman, governor of al-Madinah, lashed him seventy times. This was used by the Malikis as an argument proving Malik's opposition against the ruling authority, which is untrue as those who narrated this story have themselves narrated the next one, as elaborated below.
Ibn Qutaybah has said: "It is said that when Abu Ja'far al-Mansur heard of the story of lashing Malik ibn Anas by Ja'far ibn Sulayman, he attached great importance to it, and expressed his displeasure and denial against it, giving his orders to depose Ja'far ibn Sulayman from govenorship of al-Madianah, and to bring him to Baghdad on pack-saddle.
Then he summoned Malik to come to Baghdad, from which he refrained, sending a letter to Abu Ja'far wrote to him: "Come to see me during the season (of pilgrimage) next year, as I am going out to the gathering".85
In fact, the 'Abbasid Caliph Abu Ja'far al-Mansur's deposing of his cousin, Ja'far ibn Sulayman ibn al-'Abbas, from governorship of al-Madinah because of lashing Malik, is
85.Ta'rikh al-Khulafa' by Ibn Qutaybah, vol.ii, p.149.
( 87 )
something doubtful and deserves reflection, since this act meant nothing but to support his cousin's caliphate and consolidate his rule and sovereignty. Since he expected from Abu Ja'far to honour and promote his post, not deposing and insulting him in that way, as he dethroned him and ordered to bring him hand-cuffed on pack-saddle, then the Caliph himself apologized to Malik seeking his consent! It is really a wonderful matter!
From this we can conclude that the governor of al-Madinah, Ja'far ibn Sulayman, behaved like foolish people, knowing nothing about politics and its sagacity, and could not realize that Malik was the Caliph's dependable man and his support in two Holy Sanctuarites. Otherwise, the Caliph was not coerced to depose his cousin from governorship due to beating Malik, who deserved this because of his fatwa that considered allegaince by coercion is unlawful (haram).
Nowadays we witness similar incidents, as when some governors try to humilate and imprison someone, for the sake of maintaining the state's dignity and safety of its security. Then that person desclose his real identity to be one of the kins of some ministers, or of the relations of the president's wife, whereat the governor will be deposed and tasked with another responsibility, that may be unknown even by the governor himself.
( 88 )
MEETING BETWEEN MALIK AND
ABU JA'FAR AL-MANSUR
The following episode is narrated by the historians Ibn Qutaybah, in his book "Ta'rikh al-Khulafa", reported from Malik himself, that deserves observance and consideration.
Malik has said: Once I went to see Amir al-Mu'mineen (Abu Ja'far al-Mansur), and walked till I reached his dome. Thereat he descended from his throne to the carpet on the ground, wearing simple clothes unfit for his postion, as a sign of humbleness for my coming to see him. No one was with him except a guard with an unsheathed sword.
When I approached him, he welcomed me cordially and said: Come and sit beside me, and I sat very close to him.
Then he disclosed: O Abu 'Abd Allah, by God I never ordered to do what was done, and was unaware of it before its occurance, and never approved of it when it reached me (meaning the lashing of Malik)
Said Malik:I praised Allah for everything and sent benediction upon the prophet (S). Then I considered him far above that act, or to approve it.
Then he (al-Mansur) said: O Abu 'Abd Allah, the people of the Two Sanctuaries are still in welfare as long as you be among them, and you are their deliverer from God's wrath and chastisement and Allah warded them, through you, against a great disaster. They, as you know, rush toward sedions and are vulnerable to them, more than other people. Allah (Himself) fights them, how perverse are they. And I gave my orders to bring the enemy of Allah,86 from al-Madinah on pack-saddle, with humiliating and belittling him, and I should punish him severer than this.
I said to him: May Allah protect you from evil, and
86. He means his cousin Ja'far ibn Sulayman ibn al-'Abbas,his governor over al-Madinah.
( 89 )
honour you, I have pardoned him due to his kinship to the Messenger of Allah (S) and to you.
Abu Ja'far said: May God pardon you and keep your bond.
Malik said: He addressed me first with speech about the ancestors and earlier 'ulama', and I found him the most knowledgeable man about rijal. Then he talked about knowledge ('ilm) and fiqh, providing to be the most knowledgeable man ever known in this field, committing to memory what is narrated, and comprehending what he heard.
Then he (al-Mansur) said to me: O Abu 'Abd Allah, put and write down this knowledge in books, and avert adversities of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar, permissions of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas, and abnormalities of 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud. Betake yourself to the moderate matters, and what attained unanimity of Imams and Sahabah (may God be pleased with them), so that we can compel people to follow your knowledge and books, and disseminate them everywhere, and commit ourselves to people not to contradict them and never to judge but through them (books).
I said to him: May God amend the Amir, the people of Iraq never recognize our knowledge, and never follow our opinion in their acts.
Abu Ja'far said: We compel them to follow it by force, smitting their top heads by swords, and cutting their backs by slashes. So, do this hastily and prepare it, as my son Muhammad al-Mahdi will come to you next year to al-Madinah to hear it from you, and you should have prepared everything on his coming.
Malik said: While we seated, a small boy came out from a dome behind the one in which we were. He looked at me, he was startled and retreated. Abu Ja'far said to him: Come forword, my darling, he is Abu 'Abd Allah, the faqih of Ahl al-Hijaz. Then he turned his face to me and said: O Abu 'Abd Allah, do you know why was the lad startled and never
( 90 )
came forth? I replied: No! Said he: By Allah, he disapproved of your sitting so close to me, as he never saw anyone in this place except you, so he retreated.
Malik reported: He then ordered to grant me one thousand dinars in gold, and a splendid raiment, and another thousand dinars for my son. Then I asked his permission and departed him, but he ordered his lad to put the raiment on my shoulders, which used to be a sign of honouring. When I refrained from wearing it disdainfully, Abu Ja'far called his lad saying to him. Let it be with the luggage of Abu 'Abd Allah.87
87. Ta'rikh al-khulafa', by Ibn Qutaybah, vol.ii, p.150.