INEVITABLE COMMENTARY FOR RESEARCH
From this meeting between al-'Imam Malik and the despotic Caliph Abu Ja'far al-Mansur, and the conversation between them, the following points can concluded:
First: The 'Abbasid Caliph has desposed his governors of al-Madinah, though being his cousin and the closest one to him, humiliating him severely. Then he apologized to Malik for what he faced, swearing that it was not by orders, nor within his awareness and consent.
This indicates the full agreement between the two men, and the position entertained by Malik near Abu Ja'far al-Mansur, that he recieves him alone, letting him sit in a place never be shared by any one.
Second: From al-Mansur's saying to Malik: The people of the Two sanctuaries are still in welfare as long as you are among them, and you are their deliverer from God's wrath and chastisement, and Allah warded them, through you, against a great disaster, we conduct that Ahl al-Haramayn intended to revolt against the Caliph and his unjust rule, but al'Imam Malik calmed them down and quelled their revolution through some verdicts (fatawa), like obligating obedience to God, His Messenger and those who are in authority (being the rulers). Thus people have been quietenced and calmed down, so the Caliph forsook fighting them. By this way, Allah has warded off the massacre by the Caliph through this fatwa.88 That is why al-Mansur has said to Malik: Ahl al-Haramayn are faster than other people in rushing toward seditions, and more vulnerable to them, Allah (Himself) fights them, how perverse are they.
88. There is no contradiction between his fatwa concerning the invalidity of compulsory allegiance, and athe one obligin the obedience for the sultan. They have narrated many ahadith in this respect, for example: "Whoever revolts against obediance of the monarch and dies on this, his death is of Jahiliyyah ". And their saying: "You have obey to obey and adhere even if the emir takes your property and slashes your back"
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Third: The Caliph has nominated. Malik to be the prospective scholar throughout all the Islamic countries, imposing his school on people, compelling them to follow it throughout all means of threatening and temptation.
One of the means of temptation was his saying: We commit ourselves to the people of all lands not to contradict it (Maliki school), and never to judge but through it, delegating to him their mission, and sending their emissaries during pilgrimage days.
Among means of threatening, we can refer to his saying: But in regard of people of Iraq, they will be complelled to follow it, or their heads will be smitten by swords, and their backs will be cut by slashes.
From this paragraph we can realize the sorts of misfortune the Shi'ah were suffering the hands of despotic rulers, including suppression and slaying for forcing them to forsake the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt and follow Malik and his likes.
Forth: We observe that al-'Imam Malik and al-Mansur were holding the same beliefs and preference concerning the Sahabah and Caliphs, who seized caliphate by force and subdual.
In this regard Malik has said: He addressed me first with speech about knowledge ('ilm) and fiqh,proving to be the most knowledgeable man, and then talked about the ancestors and earlier 'ulama', and I found him the most knowledgeable man about rijal.
Undoubtedly Abu Ja'far al-Mansur was sharing al-'Imam Malik the same feeling, and exchanged flattery with him, as once, before this meeting, he said to him: By God I will never find after Amir al-Mu'mineen (meaning himself) a more knowledgeable and better in fiqh than you.89
It becomes clear from all this, that Malik was from
89. Ta'rikh al-Khulafa', by Ibn Qutaybah, vol. ii, p.142.
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among the nawasib, as he never recognized the caliphate of Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali ibn Abi Talib. We proved earlier how they (Ahl al-Sunnah) disapproved of Ahmad ibn Hanbal's belief, who considered 'Ali as the Fourth Caliph, obligating for him what was obligated for the precedent Caliphs. Needless to say that Malik passed away a long time before the birth of Ibn Hanbal.
Added to this, Malik has relied, for reporting the hadith upon 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar--the nasibi--who used to declare that they couldn't find anyone- during the Prophet's lifetime -competent to be a match to Abu Bakr, then to 'Umar, and then to 'Uthman, and after that all people being equal.
It is known that 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar used to be most famous trusworthy man for Malik, and most of the tradtions cited in the book al-Muwatta' are reported from him, beside Malik's fiqh.
Fifth:It is to be noted that the policy that was founded on oppression and despotism, intends to approach people through what attains their pleasure, including the fatawa they (Sunnah) innovated without bothering themselves to abide by the Qur'anic and Prophetic texts (nusus).
It is declared in al-Mansur's speech addressed to Malik that: Put and write down this knowledge ('ilm) in books, and avert advertises of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar, permissions of Ibn 'Abbas and abnormalities of Ibn Mas'ud. Betake yourself to the moderate matters, and what attained unanimity of Imams and Sahabah, so that we can compel people to follow your knowledge and books.
This indicates explicity that the school of ''Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-jama'ah" is only a combination of Ibn 'Umar's adversities, Ibn 'Abbas's permission, Ibn Mas'ud's abnormalities, and what Malik approved of the moderate matters followed by the Imams, with whom they meant Abu
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Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman, and what attained agreement of the Sahabah, and approved by the Caliph Abu Ja'far al-Mansur. It is evident that this school has nothing to do with the Prophet's Sunnah that is reported from is kindred, the Pure Imams, with some of whom the lives of al-Mansur and Malik were contemporaneous, and who were secluded and suppressed by the Caliph.
Sixth: It is noted that the first book written about tadwin al-Sunnahfrom the traditions of the Sahabah and Tabi'un, is the book al-Muwatta' by al-'Imam and according to a request by the ruling authority and the Caliph himself to compel people to follow it by force, by smiling with swords if necessary, as expressed by al-Mansur.
These traditions have been certainly composed by the Umayyads and 'Abbasids, in a way to serve their interests and consolidate their influence and sovereignty, and isolate people from Islam's realities proclaimed by the Prophet (S).
Seventh: It can be noted that al-'Imam Malik has feared none but people of Iraq, due to their being followers (Shi'ah) of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, who have been satisfied with his knowledge and fiqh, having devoted themselves to imitate the pure Imams among his sons, and taking no consideration for Malik or his likes, as being aware that they were nawasib fawning upon the rulers and selling their religion by dirham and dinar.
That is why Malik has said to the Caliph: May God amend the Amir, the people of Iraq never rocognize our knowledge, and never follow our opinion in their acts.
Thereat al-Mansur replied arrogantly: We compel them to follow it by force, smiting their top heads by swords, and cutting their backs by slashes.
Thus we come to realize the way of spreading abroad of the schools innovated by the ruling authorities, calling them the schools of "Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah".
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The point striking our wonder here is to see that Abu Hanifah differs with Malik, and Malik differs with him, and both differ with al-Shafi'i, al-Hanbali, and the latters disagree with each other and both differ with the former two. The four have never agreed upon one issue but very rarely, nevertheless they are all "Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah! What kind of Jama'ah is this? Are they Maliks, or Hanfafis, or Shafis or Hanabalis?? None of the sort, but it is a Jama'ah of Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, agreeing with him upon cursing 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, making it a sunnah used to be followed for eight years.
And why have they diagreement and holding different opinions and verdicts concerning one matter been permitted, and how has their differing become a mercy though being confined to the four schools, but in case of there being a mujtahid contradicting their beliefs, they would charge him with disbelief and exclude him out of the pale of Islam?
Had they been equitable and rational, why wouldn't they regard the disagreement among the Shi'ah like that one held among them?
But the Shi'ah sin is unforgivable, since they never prefer any of the companions to Amir al-Mu'mineen 'Ali, the fact being the essence of disagreement that can never be endured by "Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamah'ah", who have agreed upon one point, and that is: excluding 'Ali out of Caliphate, beside concealing and obliterating his virtues and real traits.
Eighth: The rulers that seized, by subdual and force, the funds and properties of Muslims, have embarked on distributing them generously among the court 'ulama' and their sycophants, for the sake of gaining their hearts and purchasing their consciences and religion in exchange of their world.
Said Malik: He (al-Mansur) then ordered to grant me one thousand dinars in gold, and a splendid raiment, and another thousand dinars for my son.
This began an explicit self-confession by Malik, and
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there may be much more than this, that was never mentioned by Malik, as he felt straitened of accepting apparent gifts, desiring not be seen by people, as can be apprehended from his saying:
"When the lad put the raiment on my shoulders, I refrained from wearing it disdainfully". 'As al-Mansur knew of this he ordered his lad to let it be with Malik's luggage to be kept from people's awareness.
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THE ABBASID RULER TESTS
SCHOLARS OF HIS TIME
It is known that the Abbasid Caliph, Abu Ja'far al-Mansur was a great sagaciuous, realizing how to take profession of People's minds, and buy over their consciences. He managed to expand his influence and stretch out his sovereignty through means of temptation and intimidation.
We also came to know his cunningness and sagacity thruough his conduct with Malik, after he was beaten by the governor of al-Madinah, indicating the cordial link that he had with Malik, a long time before that incident. it is said that Malik met al-Mansur fifteen years ago, when he seized the caliphate,90 whereat al-Mansur said to Malik: "O Abu 'Abd Allah I saw a dream!" Said Malik: "May God guide Amir al-Mu'mineen towards the right opinion, and inspire him with reasonable words. What did Amir al-Mu'mineen see?"
Abu Ja'far siad: "I saw I made you sit in this house, and you be among the builders of God's Holy House, while I compel people to follow your knowledge, with taking people's commitment to depute ther delegations to you, and send you their emissaries during pilgrimage days, so that you guide them to what is right in regard of religion, and truth God-willing, as knowledge belongs only to the people of al-Madinah, and you are the most knowleageable one among them...'91
Ibn Qutaybah has reported that when Abu Ja'far al-Mansur seized caliphate, he gathered Malik ibn Anas, Ibn Abi Dhu'ayb and Ibn Sam'an in one place, and asked them: How do you view me? Am I from just Imams or from the despotic Imams?
Malik said: I replied: O Amir al-Mu'minin, I implore Allah through you, and seek your intercession through
90. Ibn Qutaybah reports in Ta'rikh al-Khulafa', vol.ii, p. 150 that the first meeting was in 148 (H), while the second one was during the hajj season in (H).
We say that Malik used to meet the Caliph all the time, but Ibn Qutaybah mentioned only thses two due to their being reported by Malik himself, and containing importtant affairs, as it is unreasonable that the caliph meets the mufti of State onec every fifteen years!
91. Ibid, vol. ii, p.142.
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Muhammad (S) and your kinship to him, to exempt me from expressing my opinion in this respect. Said he (al-Mansur): Amir al-Mu'minin has exempted you.
But Ibn Sam'an said to him: By God you are the best of men, O Amir al-Mu'minin. You make pilgrimage to the House of Allah, fight the enemy, ensure safety of routes, and the weak seek your refuge for fear of being devoured by the strong, and religion is established by you, and your are the best of men, and the most just Imam.
Ibn Abi Dhu'ayb, in turn, said: By God, I view you to be the worst of men, you have taken to yourself all properties (mal) of Allah and His Messenger, and looted the share of the kinsmen, orphans and the needy. You have caused the weak to perish, and tired the strong, and seized all their properties. What will be your argument in the Hereafter before Allah?
Abu Ja'far said to him: Woe be to you, what is that you utter? Do you comprehend (what you say)? come to your senses, and look what is before you?
He said: Yes, I see swords, and it is nothing but death. It is inevitable, the sooner is better.
After this conversation, al-Manusr dismissed Ibn Abi Dhu'ayb and Ibn Sam'an, being alone with Malik. After giving him confidence, he said to him: O Abu 'Abd Allah, you can go to your town, as a rational and well-guided man. If you like to stay with us, we will never prefer anyone to you, nor will regard any creature equal to you.... He said: The text day Abu Ja'far al-Mansur sent to every one a sealed bag of money, each containing five thousand dinars, with one of his policemen, saying to him: You give each man one bundle, but in regard of Malik, if he takes it let it be, if he refused, he is not to blame. In regard of Ibn Abi Dhu'ayb, if he takes it bring me his head, if he refuses it let it be, he is not to blame.
If Ibn Sam'an refuses it, bring me his head, if he takes it, it will be to his good health.
Malik said: The man got ready and went to them, Ibn
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Sam'an took it and escaped danger. As to Ibn Dhu'ayb, he refused it and escaped danger. But I was in bad need for it, so I took it.92
From this story we can notice that Malik was aware of the Caliph's despotism and injustice, but due to the intimate link he had with al-Mansur, he pleaded to him with Muhammad (S) and his kinship to him. This was the most desired aspect by the 'Abbasid rulers, and their biggest concern at that time, which is being extolled and glorified by referring to their kinship to the Messenger of Allah (S). Thus the Caliph recognized what Malik meant by his speech, which he liked, and made him to exempt him (Malik) from utterance (expressing his opinion).
As to the second one-Ibn Sam'an - he resorted to flattering him (al-Mansur) with traits unpossessed by him, for fear of being killed, as the swordman was waiting the Caliphs's signal (to cut his head).
In regard of the third one, i.e. Ibn Abi Dhu'ayb, he was hold, fearing no reprimand from anyone, being a faithful believer, a truthful man, and sincere to Allah and His Messenger and all Muslims. So he confronted him with his reality, unveiling his falsehood and sophistry, with showing his pleasure and readiness to welcome death when being threatened by slaying.
The Caliph has tested the two men by immense fortunes, exempting al-'Imam Malik from that exam, and permitting him to be safe in both cases, taking or refusing them.
He ordered to cut Ibn Abi Dhu'ayb's head when taking them, and that of Ibn Sam'an when returning them.
As Abu Ja'far al-Mansur being a great sagacious man, he strove hard towards elevating Malik's status and imposing his school, with uprooting Ibn Abi Dhu'ayb school, though the latter's being more knowledgeable and superior to Maalik, as admitted byi al-'Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal.93
Al-'Imam al-Shafi'i also admitted that Layth ibn Sa'd
92. Ibid, vol. ii, p.144.
93. Tadhkirat al-huffaz, vol.i p.176.
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entertainment more fiqh than Malik.94
But the fact is that age never witnessed a man having more knowledgeable and fiqh than al-'Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (A), or being superior to him, as confessed by all of them.95Can anyone dare challenging him in knowledge or act, or virtue or honour, as his grandfather being 'Ali ibn Abi Talib who is superior to, and having more knowledge and fiqh than all creatures on the earth, to the exclusion of the Messenger of Allah (S)?
However, only politics nowadays can elevate the rank of some people and degrade others, and wealth has become the criterion for preferring some and causing others to remain behind.
That which concerns us in this discussion, is exposing, with explicit evidences and irrefutable arguments, that the four schools of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah are only schools innovated by politics (siyasah), and rulers have imposed them upon people by means of intimadation and temptation and publicity, as people follow only the religion of their kings.
Whoever seeks more elaberation and investigation he is recommended to go through the book "al'Imam al-Sadiq wa al-Madhahib al-'arba'ah" (al-'Imam al-Sadiq and the four schools) by al-Shaykh Asad Haydar (God's mercy be upon him). Then he will come to realize the dignity and power entertained by Malik, to the extent that al-Imam al-Shafi'i used to beg to the governor of al-Mainah to let him enter upon Malik, whereat the governor would say: "I prefer going from al-Madinah to Makkah walking on foot, than standing at the door of Malik (asking permission to enter), as I never feel abasement but when standing at his door".
The Egyptian author Ahmad Amin says in his book Zuhr al-'Islam the following: "The governments have a great role in supporting the school of Ahl al-Sunnah. As usual, when strong government support any school, people will follow and imitate that school, which remains as a document till the state
94. Manaqib al-Shafi, p.524.
95. You have previously read Malik's saying: "No eye has ever seen, and no ear has ever heared, and no heart has ever thought of a man afqah (having more knowledge) than Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq.
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However, the school of al-'Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, (if it is possible to call it a school as common among Muslims, since it is true Islam that was revealed on the Prophet (S), has never attained the support or recognition of any ruler or authority, but all the rulers strove hard to degrading and exterminating it, beside causing people to have aversion to it with all possible means.
But with God's grace upon Muslims, this school managed to split asunder those pitch-black darknesses, with gaining followers and supporters throughout centuries of oppression, since the light of Allah can never be put out by mouths, or be exterminated by swords, or abolished by false publicities and biased rumours, lest people should have argument against Allah or claim of being unaware of it.
It is known that those who followed the guide of the Imams of guidance, the Pure Progeny ('Itrah), after the Prophet's demise were only few in number, that could be counted by fingers, but throughout history and ages they have multipled, since the goodly tree, its root set firm, and its branches reaching into heaven giving its fruits at every season by permission of its Lord. Whatever was done for Allah's sake can last for ever and be perpetual.
Quraysh did its utmost to do away with Muhammad, in the outset of the da'wah (invitation to Islam). But when failing in doing this, with the grace of Allah, and thanks to Abu Talib and 'Ali, who gave their lives for saving him, Quraysh consoled itself by claiming that Muhammad being without posterity, having no offspring, and as he dies his posterity will be cut and he will extinct. So they tolerated unwillingly.
But the Lord of all worlds has given him Abundance (kawthar), and Muhammad became the grandfather of al-Hasanayn (al-Hasan and al-Husayn), giving good tidings to the believers that they both being Imams wheather they stand up (rise) or sit down (refrain from rising), and that all Imams
96. Zuhr al-'Islam, vol. vol.iv, p.96.
are from al-Husayn's offspring,constituting a threat against the interests and future of Quraysh.
As this being the will of Quraysh, so it revolted after the Prophet's demise, striving to exterminate has kindered ('Itrah) altogether. So they surrounded Fatimah's house with fire-wood (to burn it), and had 'Ali's surrender and sacrificing his right to caliphate, with his peaceful reaction never been there, they all would have been exterminated, and Islam could have been uprooted from that day.
So Quraysh has kept silent and quiet as long as the rule being in its hands, and never threatened any one from Muhammad's offspring. But as soon as 'Ali assumed power, Quraysh ignited fierce wars against him, and never calmed down till it managed in exterminating him and bringing caliphate back to the most wicked clan, making it monarchical and Caesarean, that being transfered from fathers to their sons. When al-Husayn rose up and started its violent revolt to exterminate forever the Prophet's Progeny and everything called the offspring of Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah.
Consquently they executed the massacre of Karbala' in which they slew the Prophet's Progeny, including little boys and nurslings, intending to uproot t he Prophet's tree with all its ramifications. But the Glorified Allah fullfilled His promise to Muhammad, through delievering 'Ali ibn al-Husayn and bringing out from his loins the other Imams, filing the earth, East and West, with his offspring the result of which was the Kawthar (Abudance). As a consquence of this, the offspring of the Messenger of Allah (S) spread over every country, village and land, either by self or by trace, having affection and respect in the hearts of all people.
Nowadays, and after all these activities attempts, the number of Ja'fari Shi'ah alone amounts to about (250) million Muslims all over the world, all intimating the Twelve Imams of the Prophet's kindered ('Itrah), and approaching to God
through loving and following them, with seeking their grandfather's intecession (shafa'ah)
It is infeasible to find such a number of followers in any other school, when taking into consideration each school exclussively, despite the rulers' support and backing for them.
It is stated in the Holy Qur'an:
"They plot, but Allah (also) plotteth, and Allah is the best of plotters".(8:30)
Hasn't Pharaoh commanded to slaughter every new-born male child from Banu Israel, when being told by the astrologers that a new-born (male) child from Banu Israel will threaten his throne? The best of plotters (God) has delievered Moses from Pharaoh's plotting, making him to be brought up in the lap of Pharaoh himself, undermining his rule and causing his party to perish. The commandment of Allah is always executed.
Hasn't Mu'awiyah (the Pharaoh of his time) embarked on cursing 'Ali, and killing him and his sons and follwers? Hasn't he prohibited all preachers from mentioning his virtues? Hasn't he tried with all his stratagem, to put out the light of Allah and return to the Jahiliyyah (Ignorance)? But the Best plotters elevated remembrance of 'Ali name has been spoken constantly by all Muslims, whether Sunnah or Shi'ah, and even by the Christians and Jews. The 'Ali's tomb turned to be, after the Prophet's tomb, a shrine around which millions of Muslims used to circumambulate, shedding tears and seeking God's nearness through him, and whose shrine being topped with gilt dome and minarets, towering in the sky, and fascinating the sights.
On the other side, we observe the extinguishes of rememberance of Mu'awiyah, the emperor who ruled over the earth, spreading corruption everywhere, can you see any trace of him? Or can you find any monument except a darkened and deserted graveyard? Since there is a round for falsehood, and a
vicissitude for truth, so learn a lesson, O men of understanding.
All praise belongs to Allah for His guidance. Praise be to Allah Who caused us to realize that the Shi'ah are truly following the Messenger's Sunnah, as they have followed the guide of Ahl al-Bayt, and the Household are better aware of what is in it (house). Allah has chosen and selected them, and caused them to inherit the knowledge of the Book (Qur'an).
We also came to know that Ahl al-Sunnah have followed the heresies of the earlier and later rulers, having no argument for what they claim.