11. 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar:
He is one of the renowned Sahabah, playing a great role in the course of events, that occured during the reign of the Three Caliphs and Umayyad era. His being the son of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab is a merit making him dignified and endeared by Ahl al-Sunnah, as they count him among the great fuqaha' and memorizers of the Prophetic ahadith (traditons), to the extent that al-'Imam Malik has relied upon him in (deriving) most of the rules and filled his book al-Muwatta' with his traditions. If we go through the books of Ahl al-Sunnah, we see them replet with phrases of praise and glorification for him. But when examining them deeply, we reach the conclusion that he used to be very far from equity and truth, and the Prophetic Sunnah, besides fiqh and Shari'ah sciences.The first fact that draws our attention, is his strong animosity and hatred against the master of 'Itrah, Amir al-'Muninin 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, to the extent of defaming him and regarding him among common people.
We mentioned before that he used to circulate false ahadith, indicating people's application of preferability principle during the Prophet's time and with his awareness, claiming that Abu Bakr, then 'Umar and then Uthman have been the best of people, and all people then being equal, and that this be heard by theProphet without disapproving it.223
It is really an exposed lie, derided by mindful people. After investigating about the life of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar during the Prophet's lifetime, we come to know of his being a young immature fellow, having nothing to do with Ahl al-Hall
223. It is reported by al-Bukhari, Muslims and Malik and others.
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wa al-'Aqd (decision-making), and no opinion to adhere, and when the Prophet (S) passed away, 'Abd Allah's age was only 19 years, according to the most authentic reprts.
How can he claim that they ued to make preference? It might be nonense of boys, as that uttered by sons of Abu Bakr and 'Uthman with his brothers. However it is unreasonable to say that the Prophet (S) used to hear this with no objection. This indicating the falsehood of the hadith and evil intention. Added to this, the Prophet (S) has never allowed 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar to go out with him but only in the Battle of Khandaq (Trench ), and the consequent battles, a his age wa only fifteen years.224
Definitely he has attended the Battle of Khaybar, that occurred on the seventh Hijrah year, sighting with his own eyes the defeat of Abu Bakr and of his father 'Umar, hearing the Prophet's hadith: ''Verily I shall give the standard tomorrow to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger, and they love him, bearer upon down( the enemy) and not running away, whose heart Allah has proven unto faith'', and when entering upon the morning he gave it (standard) to Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali ibn Abi Talib.225
This standard tradition (hadith al-rayah) has manifested 'Ali's excellences and superiority over all other Sahabah, beside his lofty position near Allah and His Messenger, winning their love both, But 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar's grudge has made him consider 'Ali among the plebeian people.
The Ahl al Sunnah have -- as mention earlier --adopted this hadith revealed by their master 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar, regarding not 'Ali among alKhulafa' alRashidun, and never recognizing his caliphate but only during Ahmed ibn Hanbal's time, as we stated before. This being after their disgrace at a time witnessing increase in hadith and muhaddithun, with their being target of charges of open hostility and hatred against the Prophet's Household, despite
224. Sahih al-Bukhari, kitab al-shahadat, bab bulug al-sibyan, vol.iii, p.158; sahih Muslim, bab sinn al-bulugh.
225. The hadith of the standard is reported by al-Bukhari, Muslim al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasa'i, al-'Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud and all the Muhaddithun.
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the Muslims' awareness that hating 'Ali being the biggest of hypocrisy signs.Threat they were obliged to acknowledge 'Ali as a caliph, attaching him to the chain of the Rightly-guided Caliphs, pretending falsit y and calumniously of loving Ahl al-Bayt.
Is there anyone to ask Ibn 'Umar that why have all or most of Muslims differed in regard of who being more entitled to caliphate-after the Prophet's demise- 'Ali or Abu Bakr alone, with no reference to his father 'Umar or Ibn 'Affan?
May we ask him: If the Prophet (S) approves your opinion, in seeing no equal to Abu Bakr or 'Umar or 'Uthman, why has he then appointed, after his demise, a man younger than you, as a commander and leader over them? Do you believe in his uttering nonsense as your father said?
Someone may ask him: Why have the Muhajirun and Ansar, after swearing allegiance to Abu Bakr, said to Fatimah al-Zahra': "By God, had your husband and cousin, preceded Abu Bakr in introdudcing himself, we would have never seen any peer for him"? This being a confession by great Sahabah of not seeing a match to 'Ali, had they not sworn allegiance, which they called slip; so what value seen for the opinion of Ibn 'Umar --the conceited adolescent who knows not how to divorce his wife according to the opinions of the great Sahabah?
Finally we ask him: Why have most of the Sahabah chosen 'Ali for the post of caliphate after 'Umar, prefering him to 'Uthman, had he not refused Ibn Awf 's condition of ruling according to the conduct of the two Shaykhs (sunnat al-Shaykhayn)?226
The fact lies in Ibn 'Umar's being under the influence of his father, as he lived along with the caliphate periods of Abu Bakr,'Umar and 'Uthman. So he observed exclusion of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, and his being away from the companions 'meetings, with no government post besides people's turning away from him after the demise of his cousin (S) and his wife
226. Ta'rikh al-Tabari, vol. v, p. 40; Ta'rikh al-khulafa', biy al-Sayuti, p. 104; Tarikh Ibn Qutaybah; Musnad Ahmad, vol.i, p.586.
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(A), having nothing of world's temptations.
Certainly 'Abd Allah ibn Umar used to be the closet one of his father, listening to his opinions and knowing his friends and foes. So he has grown up with that detestation, grudge and hatred against 'Ali in particular and Ahl al-Bayt in general, to the extent that when the Muhajirun and Ansar have sworn allegiance to 'Ali after the murder of 'Uthman, he could not endure this, so he disclosed his innermost grudge, with refusing to swear allegiance unto the Imam of the pious and master of believers, and he, intolerating to stay in al-Madinah, has moved from it swords Makkah claiming the 'Umrah.
Then Ibn 'Umar did his utmost to discourage people and set them back, for the sake of refraining from succouring the truth and fighting the wrong-doing party till it returns unto the ordinance of Allah. Thus he was the first one to disappoint the appointed Imam of his time.
After assassination of al-'Imam 'Ali, and Mu'awiyah' achieving triumph against al-'Imam al-Hassan ibn 'Ali in snatching caliphate from him, Mu'awiyah addressed the people saying: "I have not fought you for performing prayer or fasting or going on a pligrimage, but to be an imperious over you, which Allah has granted me. Threat 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar rushed for swearing allegiance unto Mu'awiyah, alleging that people have unanimously acknowledged him after being divided!
I think it was him who called that year the year of the company (jama'ah), after which he and his Umayyad followers came to be called " Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah ", till the Doomsday.
Is there anyone to ask Ibn 'Umar and his sunni followers, that at what time unanimity was concluded on any caliph throughout history, as it was for Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali ibn Abi Talib?
As Abu Bakr 's caliphate was a slip Allah has granted
us against it, and 'Umar's caliphate was (acknowledged) without consulting any of the Sahabah or asking anyone's approval, but through a covenant from Abu Bakr. Further 'Uthman's caliphate was acknowledged by the three men nominated by 'Umar, or rather through the despotism of 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf alone.
Whereas 'Ali's caliphate was acknowledged by the Muhajirun and Ansar's allegiance to him, with no prescription or coecion, through his writting of letters to all metropolises, and receiving their compliance except Mu'awiyah from the Sham.227
Ibn 'Umar and Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah were supposed to punish Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan by death, due to his renouncing allegaince, and claiming caliphate for himself, in accordance with the narrations reported by them that the Prophet has said: If allegiance was sworn for two caliphs, kill the second one.228
Also in Sahih Muslim and other books, the Prophet (S) said: " Whoever swears allegaince to an Iman, giving him his covenant and support, he can do so, but when another one contends him (the imam), you should cut the head of the other one".229
But 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar, acting reversely, and instead of submitting to the Prophet's hadith and orders in fighting and killing Mu'awiyah, due to his contending the Muslims' caliph and sparking the sedition, he has refused allegiance to 'Ali, upon which all Muslims have unanimously consented, and he swore allegiance to Mu'awiyah who renounced allegiance, contending the Imam, killing the innocent and creating a sedition whose traces are still extant up to date.
This makes me believe that 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar has shared Mu'awiyah in all the crimes, offenses and sins he perpeterated, since he has worked for erecting his dominion, supporting him to impose his mastery and control over caliphate, that was forbidden by Allah and His Messenger for
227. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bazi, vol. vii, p.586.
228. Sahih Muslim, vol, p.23; Mustadrak al-Hakim, vol. ii, p.156; sunan al-Bayhaqi, vol.viii, p.144.
229. Sahih Muslim; Sunan al-Bayhaqi; Sunan Ibn Majah.
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the released (tulaqa') and their sons, according to a Prophet hadith.
Moreover, 'Abd Allah ibn Umar has gone farther, by rushing for swearing allegiance unto Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah, who being plunged in liquor, debauchery and blasphemy, the taliq and son of taliq (released from captivity) and the accursed and son of the accursed.
When observing the hadith narrated by 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, as reported in Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd, saying: "Caliphate cannot be acknowledged for a taliq or a son of a taliq, nor for the Muslims for the fath (conquest)'',230 we question 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar that: How can he contradict his father in the principle he ordained before? But this becomes very ordinary when recognizing that 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar has contradicted the Book of Allah and His Messenger's Sunnah concerning the caliphate affair.
May we ask Ibn 'Umar another question: Which unanimity was concluded for acknowledging Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah, while the upright men of the Ummah with the Muhajirun and Ansar, including the Master of paradise youth al-'Imam al-'Husayn, 'Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and 'Abd Allah 'Umar ibn 'Abbas, beside their followers, have all disregarded him?
It is known that in the beginning, he was among those who opposed to swear allegiance unto Yazid, but Mu'awiyah realzed how to bring him over, when sending him a hundred thousand dirham which he accepted. When Mu'awiyah asked him to swear allegiance unto his son Yazid, Ibn 'Umar got the point and said: Is this the purpose he has aspired for? So I have sold my religion with cheap price.231
Yes, truly Ibn 'Umar has sold his religion very cheeply, as he testified against himself, rejecting to acknowledge the Imam of the pious, rushing for swearing allegiance to the imam of tyrants: Mu'awyah, and Imam al-fasiqin (leader of adulterers): Yazid. And as he has shared on bearing the burden of the atrocities caused by the rule of the
230. Ibn Sa'd al-Tabaqat al-kubra, vol.iii, p. 248.
231. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-'ashraf ,vol. v, p.31; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-'Isti'ab, vol. ii, p. 396; Usd al-ghabah, vol.iii, p. 289.
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oppressor Mu'awiyah, he undoubtedly shaares Yazid in the sins he perpetrated, topped by violating the sanctity of Allah's Messenger through slaying him rayhanah, the Master of Heavens youth, with the Prophet's Progeny and the righteous people among the Ummah, whom he killed in karbala' and in the Hurrah Battle.
Abd Allah ibn Umar, being unsatisfied with this extend of allegiance to Yazid, has striven for prompting people to do the same, threatening anyone thinking or renouncing it.
Al-Bukhari has reported on hss Sahih, with some other narrators, that Abd Allah ibn 'Umar has gathered his sons, entourage and slaves-- when deposing Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah by people of al-Madinah-- saying to them: We have sworn allegiance to this man (Yazid )as a covenant with Allah and His Messenger,232 and I heard the Messnbger (S) say: On the Dy of Resurrection banner will be erected for the trecherous with announcing: This is the treson of so and so (fulan), and the greatest treason, for making a partner to God, is a man's swearing allegiance for Allah and His Messenger, but breaching his covenant then.233 So no one of you should depose Yazid, or intend to take part in this case, or otherwise there will be barrier between me and him.234
'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar 's support for Yazid and enticing people towards swearing allegiance unto him, caused Yazid's prowess to strengthen, making him prepare an army led by Muslim ibn 'Aqabah, the biggest debauches, with an order to move to al-Madinah permitting him to do whatever he wishes. So this man has committed a massacre, killing ten thounsand of the Companions, sparing their women and properties, with slaying seven hundred of the Qur'an memorizes as stated by al-Baladhuri, violating the sanctities, with raping the Muslim women, causing them to give birth to more than one thousand children, taking their convenant to be slaves for his master Yazid.
232. Did Allah and His Messenger give orders to swear allegiance unto the debauches and culprits? Or did He order to swear allegiance unto His righteous awiya' when He said: Your guardian cab be only Allah; and His Messenger and those who believe,who establish worship and pay the poor-due, and bow down (in prayer)?
233. Would that Ibn 'Umar said this to Talhah and al-Zubayr who have violated their allegiane for 'Ali and fought him, and would that Ahl al-Sunnah adopted this hadith in classifying the rijal! If violating the covenant be one of the major sins after polytheism, so what should be the end of Talhah and al-Zubayr who have, morever, violated the honours, slaughtered the innocent, plundered the assests and betrayed the promise???
234. Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. i, p.166; musnad Ahmad, vol. ii, p.96;Sunan al-Bayhaqi, vol. viii, p.159.
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Had not 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar been a partner for Yazid in all his acts, through supporting and backing him? I leave inference in this respect to the researchers!
Ibn 'Umar has transgressed this limit, by swearing allegiance to Marwan ibn al-Hakam, the accursed wanton, who launched a war against 'Ali, and killed Talhah, perpeterating many crimes, including burning the Sacred House of Allah, throwing it with mangonil till demolishing its corner, beside killing 'Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, beside other heinous shameful acts.
Morever he has sworn allegiance to al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi, the big zindiq, who used to mock he Qur'an, regarding it only a lambus poem composed by the Arabs, and prefering 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan over the Messenger of Allah. Al-Hajjaj, whose heinous acts are known for all people, to the extent that the historians state that he has demolished all the pillars of Islam.
It is reported in Ta'rikh Ibn 'Asakir that two ment had a dispute regarding al-Hajjaj, as one of them said: He is a kafir (infidel), but the other said: He is a misguided believer. After arguing about him, they asked al-Shi'bi in his respect, who said: He believes in idols and false deities, and disbelievers in the Almighty Allah.
This is the truth of al-Hajjaj, the culpritt who has violated all sanctities of Allah, about whom the historians state that he has exceeded proper bounds in slaying, torturing and mutilating the righteous and faithful men among the Ummah, particularly the Shi'ah (followers) of the Prophet's Household, who were inflicted with calamities that no other people suffered.
It is reported in Ta'rikh Ibn Qutaybah, that al-Hajjaj has killed in one day more than seventy thousand persons, till blood reached the door of the mosque and the locks.236 Al-Tirmidhi says in his Sahih: On counting those killed by al-Hajjaj, it was found that their number reached a hundred
236. Ibn Qutaybah,Ta'rikh al-khulafa', vol.ii, p.26.
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and twenty thounsand.237
Ibn 'Asakir is reported to have said in his Tarikh, after mentioning those killed by al-Hajjaj: After al-Hajjaj 's death, eighty thousand people, including thirty thousand women have been found in his prison.238
Moreover, al-Hajjaj used to resemble himself to the Glorified Lord, as when passing by the prison and hearing the prisoners' crying and appeal for him, he used to reply them: Begone therein, and speak not unto me.
This is al-Hajjaj about whom the Messenger foretold before his death, saying: There is big liar and mountebank in Thaqif. What is strange here is that the narrator of this tradition being 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar himself!239
Thus 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar refused swearing allegiance to the best of mankind after the Prophet, never supporting him or taking him as a leader in prayers, being debased thus by Allah, the Glorified. So he betook himself to al-Hajjaj saying: I heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Whoever dies without undertaking any allegiance, his death is the death of Jahiliyyah". Threat al-Hajjaj humilated him, extending his leg saying: My hand is occupied. Despite this, he has sworn allegaince to al-Hajjaj, making him his leader in prayers, beside after his governor Najdah ibn 'Amir, the head of Kharijites.240
Certainly the reason that prompted 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar to pray behind such people, lies in their being known of slandering and cursing 'Ali after every salat (prayyer ). Thus through hearing this, Ibn 'Umar used to appease his hatred and quench his grudge, attaining tranquality herewith.
Therefore the school of Ahl al-Sunah wa al-Jama'ah permits them to pay behind the pious and libertine, the believer and debauches, in accordance with the practice of their master and faqih of their school 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar, as he used to perform his prayers behind al-Hajjaj, the artheist, and Najdah ibn 'Amir, the Kharijite.
237 .Sahih al-Tirmidhi,vol.ix ,p.64.
238. Ta'rikh Ibn 'Asakir, vol. iv,p.80.
239. Sahih al-Tirmidhi, vol.ix, p.64; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. ii, p.91.
240. Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabaqat al-kubra, vol. iv, p. 110: Ibn Hazam, al-Muhalla, vol. iv, p. 213.
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Concerning the Prophet 's hadith : "The leader in prayer (imam) should be the best of people in reading the Qur'an, if all being equal so their most knowledge in the Sunnah, if being equal the earliest in migration, and if being equal so the first in embracing Islam ", 241 it has been desregarded by Ibn 'Umar sicne all those acknowledged by him and accepted by him as a leader in prayers, including Mu'awiyah, Yazid, Marwan, al-Hajjaj and Najdah have been devoid of these four traits.
This, of course, is one of the Prophetic sunan that 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar has contradicted and acted exactly in their opposite way, through forsaking the master of the 'Itrah, 'Ali, who had all these merits and many more. But Ibn 'Umar has abandoned him and turned his face towards the debauches, Khawarij and atheists, the enemeis of Allah and His Messenger, making them his imams in prayers!
If we intend to cite all the contradictions done by Ibn 'Umar, the faqih of Ahl al-Sunnah, against the Book of Allah and His Messenger's Sunnah, we can compile a seperate book, but we suffice with citing some examples from their own books and Sihah, so that our argument be final.
Ibn 'Umar's Contradiction to the Book and Sunnah
The almighty Allah says in His holy Book: "...fight ye that which doeth wrong till it return unto the ordinance of Allah....(49:9).The Messenger of Allah (S) has said: "O 'Ali, after me you will verily fight that Nakithun (violaters) and Qastitun and Mariqun (renegades)"
Then come 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar who contradicts the Qur'an and Prophetic Sunnah, with the unanimity of the Ummah including the Muhajirun and Ansar, who have fought beside Amir al-Mu'minin, exerting his opinion saying: I am not fighting during the sedition, and I pray behind that who conquers.242
241. Sahih Muslim, vol.ii, p.133; Sahih al-Tirmidhi, vol. vi, p.34; sunan Abi Dawud, vol. i, p.96.
242. Ibn Sa'd , al-Tabaqat al-kubra, vol. iv, p.110.
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Ibn Hajar has also stated that 'Abd Allah ibn Umar was of the opinion of not fighting during the insurrection, even if being assured that one of t he parties be on the right side and the other onee on the false.243
How surprising is the case of Ibn 'Umar, who seeing the truth be with a party and falsehood with the other, but never embarking on supporting the truth against falsehood, or on repelling falsehood till it returns unto the ordinance of -batil- the fact that has aactually been done by Ibn 'Umar, by swearing allegiance unto Mu'awiyah, who has overcome and subdued the Ummah by force force, perpetrating unbelievable crimes and sins.
The followers of falsehood --Imams of despotism -- due to their multiplicity, have conquered the followers of truth, being the Imams of Ahal al-Bayt, who have been secluded, while the Ummah being ruled forcibly by debauchees and culprits. Thus Ibn 'Umar has forsaken the truth completely, with no historic evidence showing his company or affection for Ahl al-Bayt despite his being contemporary with five Imams. But he has never made any of them his leader in prayers, never narrating even one tradition from them, beside not citing any merit or virtue for any Imam.
In the chapter about the twelve Imams, we came to know his view about twelve caliphate of Abu Bakr, 'Uthman, Mu'awiyah, Yazid, al-Saffah, Salam, al-Mansur, Jabir, al-Mahdi, al-Amin, and Amor al-'Asab, proclaiming: These twelve are all from Banu ka'b ibn Lu'ayy, and being righteous with no parallel.244
Do you see, among these twelve, any of the Imams of guidance, from the Prophet's Kindred, whom he (S) has described as the ark of deliverance and matchesof the Qur'an? Hence Ahl Sunnah never recognize all the Imams (A), acknowledging no one of them among the
243. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari, p. 39.
244. Ta'rikh al-Suyuti, Kanz al-'ummal; Ta'rikh Ibn 'Asakir ' al-Dhahabi. For knowing reference numbers, refer to the chapter: "The Twelve Caliphs in Ahl al-Sunah's Perspective", of this book.
caliphs whom they follow.
This being Ibn 'Umar's nature in contradicting the Book and the Sunnah, and about his ignorance of them, we can speak with no trouble. An example for this can be given when mentioning that he has been unaware of the fact, that the Prophet (S) has permitted for women during ihram (of hajj) to wear khuffan (slippers), while Ibn 'Umar has considered this as being haram (forbidden).245
Another example is that he used to let his farms on lease during the eras of the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and Mu'awiyah, till he was told during the last days of Mu'awiyah 's caliphate, that the prohet (S) has forbidden this practice.246 This is the truth about the faqih of Ahl al-Sunnah, who knows not the forbidden of lending the farms, giving a verdict throughout this period for permitting this, from the Prophet's time till the end of Mu'awiyah 's caliphate, for about fifty years.
Moreover, his fatwa of obligating ablution (wudu') by caressing, which was disapproved by 'A'ishah or his fatwa that the dead man is tormented by the weaping of the living ones, or that about the morning prayer adhan, or his claim that every month having twenty-nine days, besides other matters disapproved by 'A'ishah.
We can refer also to the hadith reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim in their two sahih's: It is said to 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar that Abu Hurayrah has said: I heard the Prophet (S) say: "Whoever walks behind a janazah (bier), gains a qirat (carat) of reward ". Ibn 'Umar said: Abu Hurayrah narrated abundantly, and 'A'ishah believed him saying: I heard the Messenger of Allah (S) say so. Ibn 'Umar then said: We have squandered many carats.247
We suffice with citing 'Umar ibn al-Khattab's testimony against his son 'Abd Allah, as when he was asked by one of the sycophants while being at the point of death: Make 'Abd Allah your successor, he said to him: How can I appoint
245. Sunan Abi Dawud, vol. i, p.289; Sunan al-Bayhaqi, vol. v, p.25; Musnad Ahmad, vol. ii, p. 29.
246. Sahih al-Bukhari; Sahih Muslim, vol. v, p.21.
247. Sahih al-Bukhari, kitab al-jana'iz bab fadl ittiba' al-jana'iz.
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someone knowing not how to divorce his wife, my successor? So this being Ibn 'Umar 's reality, who is better knwon by his father.
Concerning the fabricated traditions with which he rendered service for his master Mu'awiyah, being numerous, we cite some of an example:
He said: The Prophet (S) siad: "A man from heaven inhabitations will verily come upon you", and then Mu'awiyah appeared. The next day he repeated the same hadith, and again Mu'awiyah came out.
He also said: When the thrown was revealed, Allah's Messenger (S) said to Mu'awiyah: Write it down, whereat Mu'awiyah said: What shall I benefit from writing it? He (S) replied: Whenever it is recited by anyone, its reward will be decreed for you.
Again he said: On the day of Resurrection Mu'awiyah will be verily resurrected wearing a garb made of light of faith.
Thus we came to realize Ibn 'Umar and his level of knowledge, with his fiqh and contradiction to the Book and Prophetic Sunnah. Further it was exposed for us his hostility against Amir al-Mu'minin and Pure Imams of the Prophet's 'Itrah, beside his loyalty and sycophancy for the enemies of Allah, and His Messenger and humanity.
Shall Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah contemplate today into today into these facts, recognizing then that the Muhammadan Sunnah can never be found but near the followers of the Pure Progeny, being the Imamiyyah Shi'ah?
Allah says in his holy Book:
"No equal are the owners of the Fire and the owners of the Garden.The owners of the Garden, they are the victorious".(59:20)
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12.'Abd Allah ibn al-Zubair:
His father is al-Zubair ibn al-'Awwam, who was killed during the Jamal Battle, that is called by the Prophetic Sunnah as the harb al-Nakithin (Battle of violaters ). His mother is Asma' bint Abi Bakr ibn Abi Bakr and the Prophet's wife. He is the biggest opponent and hater for al-'Imam 'Ali (A).
He may have been boasting of the caliphate of his grandfather Abu Bakr, and his aunt 'A'ishah, inheriting from them grudge (against 'Ali), and growing up with it. Al-Imam 'Ali (A) has said once to al-Zubair : We used to count you among the sons of Abd al-Muttalib, till the attaining to puberty of your wicked son, who has sepreted between us and you.
It is known historically that during the Jamal Battle, he had been one of the outstanding leaders, that 'A'ishah introducedhim for leading people in prayers, after deposing Talhah and la-Zubayr, due to their disagreement, each desiring for it.
'Abd Allah has reproached his father with cowardice, when the latter intended to retire the battle, when reminded by al-'Imam 'Ali (A) with the Prophet's hadith, telling him that he will fight 'Ali while being unjust to him. After insisting recurringly on hos raproachment, his father said to nim: What os the matter with you, may God disgrace you, what an ominous son are you248
It is said that he continued on taunting and exciting his father, till he (his father) lauunched an offensive against 'Ali's army, and was killed. Thus his father's saying in his regard comes true: ''What an ominous son are''.
We have chosen this narration due t its being nearer to the fact and the spiteful mentality f al-Zubayr and his wicked son 'Abd Allah. Because it was not for al-Zubayr to
248. Ta'rikh A'tham; Ibn Abi al-Hadid's Sharh Nahj al-balaghah, vol. v,p.163.
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quit the battle so easil, leaving Talhah alone with his companions, and slaves whom he has brought to Basrah, and his wife's sister Umm al-Mu'minin while being at the point of death. Supposing that he leaves them, but they never let him alone, particularly his son 'Abd Allah, whose resolution and determination are known for us.
The historians relate that 'Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr used to revile and curse 'Ali by saying: The scoundrel depraved man has come to you --meaning 'Ali (A),-- and once he has addressed the people of Basrah calling and prompting them for fighting, saying: O people, 'Ali killed the legitimate Caliph 'Uthman unjustly, mobilizing armies then with the purpose of ruling over you, and usurping your town. So you are asked to avenge your caliph, protect your women, and fight for defending your wives, offspring and relations. By God, 'Ali sees no one competent for this affair save him, and should he dominate you, he will verily destroy your religion and world (dunya).249
His detestation for Banu Hashim in general, and 'Ali (A) in particular, reached an extent that he refraned from asking benediction upon Muhammad for forty Fridays, saying: The only thing preventing me from remembering him is fearing some men might pride themselves highly.250
It is really a disclosed lie and great slander on the part of 'Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, whose heart can never be enlightened and visited by truth.
The incident testifying this fact is that when 'Ali (A) has overcome and conquered them, capturing most of them, including 'Abd Allah ibn al- Zubayr, he has pardoned and set them free, with honouring 'A'ishah, sheltering her and returning her to al-Madinah. Moreover he has forbidden his companions from taking spoils of war, captivating women amd children, and slaying the wounded ones, promting thus some of his army to rebel against him and be suspicious in his regard. Since the Prophetic Sunnah has been incarnated in 'Ali(A),
249. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, op. cit, vol. i, p. 358; Ta'rikh al-Mas'udi, vol. v, p.163.
250. Ta'rikh al-Yaqubi, vol. iii, p.7; sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. i, p. 385.
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who having the knowledge of Allah's Book alone with no parallel, so some of the foisted hypocrites, being angered at this, have instigated people against him saying: How can he permit us to fight them, while forbidding us from captivating their wives?
Many of the warriors had been beguild by this allegation, but 'Ali (A) reasoned them with the Book of Allah, saying to them: Cast lots to see which one among you can marry his mother 'A'ishsh! Thereat they have come to their senses, realizing that truth is on his side, saying: We seek God's forgivness, you have been right while we were mistaken.
So 'Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr's speech proved to be a manifested lie, since his hatred for 'Ali (A) blinded his sight and insight, taking him out of the pale of faith, as he has never repented after that, never learning any lessons or taking any warning from that war. But on the contrary, he has returned evil for kindness, becoming more spiteful and hater against Banu Hashim and the master of the Pure (Prophet's) Progeny, doing his utmost for putting out their light and exterminating them.
The historians narrate that, after the murder of al-'Imam 'Ali (A), he has embarked in claiming loading over the belivers for himself. Then he managed in gaining supporters, reinforcing his power, be emboldened thus to imprison Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, the son of al-Imam 'Ali (A), beside al-Hasanibn 'Ali(A), and seventeen men from among Banu Hashim, intending to set them to fire. He gathered a lot of fire-wood at the door of the detention place, setting it to fire, and had al-Mkhtar's army not arrived in due time, extinguishing the fire and saving them, ibn al-Zubayr would have attained his wish.251
Then Marwan ibn al-Hakam sent him an arny led by al-Hajjaj, who besieged and killed him, crucifying him inside the Haram (Gid's House). That was the end of Ibn al-Zubay's life, like that of his father before him. Each of them had been
251. Ta'rikh al-Mas'udi vol. v, p. 185; sharh Nahj al-balaghah, vol. iv, p.487.
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tempted by the world, being eager for overruling and gaining allegiance for himself, struggling for that end, perishing and causing others to perish, being murdered without attaining his goal.
'Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr has -fiqhi- views, that are nothing but a reaction for contradicting the fiqh of Ahl al-Bayt whom he hates much.
His most widely-known opinion, being his verdict prohibiting the temporary marriage (zawaj al-mut'ah). He has once said to 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas: O you the blind one, of you practise it I shall verily stone you. Ibn 'Abbas has replied: I am blind-sighted but you are blind-insighted, of you like to know the lawfulness of -mut'ah, you may inquire your mother on its regard.252
For the sake of brevity, we suffice with this exposition, for showing Ibn al-Zubayr's contradiction to Ahl al-Bayt in all matters, even -fiqhi- affairs in which he has no strong hold.
All of these people have gone away, taking along their good and bad, leaving the distressed Ummah weltering through a sea of blood, sinking in the sea of deviation, with the majority being unable to distinguish between truth and falsehood, as expressed by Talhah, al-Zubayr and Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas.
The only one who used to be well-acquainted with his Lord, never doubting a bit in the truth, being 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (A), with whom truth used to be wherever he be or goes. Be delighted who has followed his guide and imitated him, as the Messenger of Allah (S) said to him: O 'Ali, you and your Shi'ah (followers) are verily the victorious on the Day of Resurrection.253
The Qur'an says:
"Is He Who leadeth to the Truth more deserving that He should be followed, of he who findeth not the way unlless he (himself ) be guided. What aileh you? How judge ye? (10:35)
The Almighty has said the Truth
252. 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas became blind when he was old. In regard of his saying: "Ask your mother about it", it is said that al-Zubayr has married Asma' through a morganatic marriage, the result of which was Abd Allah himself. When 'Abd Allah asked his mother about it, she said to him: Haven't I forbidden you from disputing Ibn 'Abbas, as he is the most knowledgeable of the Arab's disgraces.
253. Jalal al-Din al-Sayuti, al-Durr al-manthurfi al-tafsir bi al-ma'thur, about surat al-Bayyinah.
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THE PROPHETIC SUNNAH NEVER
CONTRADICTS THE QUR'AN
After investigating and examining the creeds of both the sects: the Shi'ah and Ahl al-Sunah wa al-Jama'ah, we have come to recognize that the Shi'ah refer, in all their fiqhi rules, to the holy Book and Prophtic Sunnah, with no third source.They (Shi'ah) put the Qur'an in the first rank, giving the second place for the Prophetic Sunnah, meaning that they impose survellance over the Sunnah, subjecting it on the Book of Allah, approving whatever compiles with the Book, rejecting and disregarding that which disgraces with it.254 To this end the Shi'ah depend upon what Ahl al-Bayt have ordaind, as reported from their grandfather the Messenger of Allah (S), who said: Whenever a hadith is reported from me, you should take and apply it, and whatever disgraces with it disgraced it.
Al-'Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (A) used to say: Whatever disgraces with the Qur'an is but a vanity.
He is reported to have said also in Usul al-Kafi, that the Prophet (S) has addressed the people in Mina, saying: "O mankind, if what is reported from me agree with Allah's Book, it is uttered by me, and whatever reported from me disgraces with Allah's Book, I have never uttered it".
The Imamiyyah Shi'ah have established their fiqh and beliefs on such a firm situation, as however veracious be the chain of transmission of the hadith, it should be weighed on this balance and subjected on the Book, that falsehood cannot come at it from before it or from behind it.This condition has never been stipulated but only by the Imamiyyah Shi'ah form among all the Islamic sects, especially in regard of an issue about which narrations and reports disgrace.
254. This is verily the sound logic that closes the door before all the narrators who were known of foisting and fabricating the ahadith, and ascribing them to the Messenger (S), while he being free from them.
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In his Book Tashih al-'i'tiqad, al-Shaykh al-Mufid is reported to have said: "The Book of Allah is superior to all traditions and narraions, and through it judgement can be issued regarding the various and frail akhbar, as it decision being the sole of truth".
Based on this provision (shart), i.e. subjecting any hadith on the Book of Allah, the Shi'ah have been distinguished from Ahl al-Sunnah inregard of many fiqhi rules and doctrines.
Any truth-seeker, when going through the rules and doctrines of the Shi''ah, finds for them a confirmation in the Book of Allah, on the contrary of those of Ahl al-Sunnah, which prove to be expressely contradictory to the holy Qur'an, as shall be exposed later on with proofs.
On this basis, the truth-seeker will recognize that the Shi'ah have never any of hadith books or regarded them sacred like the Qur'an, as believed by Ahl al-Sunnah, who approve all the hadith narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim, though containing hundreds of traditions contradicting the Book of Allah.
Enough be to know that despite the veneration held by Shi'ah for the author of the book al-kafi, Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni, and his profoundity in 'ilm al-hadith, but the Shi'ah 'ulama' have never claimed that all the traditions collected by him being sahih, and some of them have disapproved half of them, regarding them unauthentic. Morever the author of al- Kafi himself never believes in the varacity of all the ahadith he has compiled in his book.
This may be resulted from the conduct of the caliphs of each sect, as Ahl al-Sunnah have followed the guide of chiefs unaware of the rules of the Qur'an and the Sunnah, or being aware of them but exerted their opinions, contradicting thus those texts, for reasons some of which we have exposed before.
Whereas the Shi'ah have adhered to the Imams of
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the Pure Progeny, who being equal and interpreters of the Qur'an, never contradicting it or differing in its regard.
It is stated in the holy Qur'an:
"Is he (to be counted equal with them) who relieth on a clear proof form his Lord, and a witness from Him reiteth it, and before it was the Book of Moses, an example and a mercy? Such believe therein, and whoso disbelieveth of the clans, the Fire is his appointed place. So be not thou in doubt concerning it. Lo! it is the Truth from thy Lord; but most mankind believe not". (11:17)