When going through the topic of Sahabh without any prejudice or emotions, we see that the Shi'ah have given them the ranks ordained by the Qur'an and the Prophetic Sunnah and as obligated by reason. They (Shi'ah) have never charged them all with disbelief as done by the Ghulat, nor believed in their equity (adhalah) as a whole, as done by Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jam'ah.
In this respect, al-Imam Sharaf al-Din al-Musawi says: "Anyone ponders upon our opinion in regard of the Sahabah, comes to know that it is the most moderate of all, as we have never exceeded the proper bounds like the Ghulat who regarded all of them as infidels, nor gone to extremes as done by the Jamhur (Sunnah) who had confidence in all of them. The Kamalites and their in ghulluw have charged all the sahabah with impiety (kufr) and Ahl al-Sunnah believe in thejustice of every one who has heared or seen the the Prophet amaong Muslims absolutely, disputing with the hadith (Every creeping and walking of them all)
But for us, though seeing the (prophet's) companionship in itself as a laudable virtue but not impecabling, we opine that the sahbah are like other people including the just ones represented by their magnates and scholars, and the tyrants and the culprits from among the hypocrites and also those of unknown condition, but we reason with their just ones and follow their guide in the world and Hereafter.
Regarding the bughat (oppressors) against the wasi (executor) and Prophet's brother, and all culprits like Ibn Hind, Ibn al-Nabigah, Ibn al-Zarqa', Ibn 'Aqabah and Ibn

( 279 )

Arta'ah and their likes, we never hold any weight for them nor give their hadithany consideraion. In regard of that whose condition is unknown (maghul al-hal), we never judgehim unil getting acquaited with his nature.
This is our view in regard of the traditionists among the Sahabah, relying upon the Qur'an and Sunnah as an avidence for it, as elaborated in the arguments in Usul al-fiqh. The Jumhur have exaggerated in sanctifying every one they have call a Sahabi, to the extent exceeding moderation, as they have offered for argument the lean and the corpulent, blundly follolwing the guide of every Muslem who heard or saw the Prophet (S), disapproving anyone contradicting them in this ghuluww (excess), going too far on this disapproval.
Their severest denial against us comes when we refute the hadith of a large number of Sahabah, expressing their untruthfulness or being of unknown state, acting according to the legal duty that calls for investigating the religious realities, and searching for the veracious (sahih) Prophetic traditions.
This has prompted them to look at us with mistrust and susoucion, accusing us with many charges through divination and out of ignorance (jahl). But had they come to their senses and referred to bases of knowledge, they would have realized that no evidence is there to prove the originality of justice ('adalah) among the Sahabah. If they deliberate on the holy Qur'an, they will find it replete with references to the hypocrites among them, like surat al-al-'Ahzab and others''. (End of Sharaf al-Din's quotation).
Dr. Hamid Hafni, the Head of Arabic Department in 'Ayn al-Shams University in Cairo, says: ''But the Shi'ah view the Sahabah like other Muslims with no difference, on account of justice balance, with which the acts of Sahabah and of their successors are weighed. The Companionship in itself can't render its owner any virtue unless he deserves it, and being competent for indertaking the mission of the Shari'ah

( 280 )

(S), including the infallibles, such as the Imams who enjoyed the Messenger's company, like 'Ali and his sons (A). They include also the equitables, who have been kind companions for 'Ali after the Prophet's demise.
They include too the truthful mujtahid and the mistaken one, the debauches, and the zindiq who is uglier and more wicked than the debauchee, that includes the hypocrites who worship God upon a narrow marge, and also the infidels, who have never repented of their hypocricy, and those who have apostatized after being Muslims.
The meaning we get from this, is that the Shi'ah -who constitute a big majourity of worshippers -judge all Muslims through one criterion, without differentiating between a Sahabi (companion) and Tabi'i (follower) and a letter, safeguarding its owner in his belief (against error).
On this solid basis, they (the Shi'ah )- following their ijtihad- permitted criticizing the Sahabah, and investigating the level of their justice, beside allowing themselves to find fault with some of the Companions who have violated the requirements of companionship, and turned away from the affection toward Al Muhammad (S). Why not, while the holy Messenger says: [I am leaving behind among you two things, if you hold on to them you will never go astray: the Book of Allah and my Kindered ('Itrah), my Household, for indeed, the two will never seperate until they come back to me by the Pond. So watch out how you treat these two after me.] Based on this hadith and its like, they consider many companions to have contradicted it through persecuting the Household of Muhammad, and their reviling some of the 'Itrah. Therefore how can such opposers enjoy the honour of companionship, and how can they be branded with 'adalah (justice) ?!This is the quintessence of the Shi'ah's opinion in denying some Companions of the trait of justice, and such are the factual sceintific reasons upon which they have founded their proofs".

( 281 )

In another place, Dr. Hamid Hafni confesses that reproaching or doubting the Sahabah, has not been innovated by the Shi'ah alone, when he says: "In the past he Mu'tazilah have practiced such criticism beside other doctrinal problems, being unsatisfied with criticizing the Sahabah in general but even Caliphs themselves, the practice for which they had opponents and supporters. Criticizing the Sahabah used to be -during the early centuries- followed only by those who were firm in knowledge, particulary the Mu'tazilah 'ulama', preceeded by the heads of the Shi'ah and chiefs of the fanatics towards Muhammad's Household.
I have indicated, at another place, that the theologians and Mu'tazilah shyakhs used to be 'alah (pauper) sustaining and Shi'ah leaders from the first century (H). So the matter of criticising the Sahabah is originated by tashayyu' for Muhammad's Household, but not for tashayyu, itself, since the Shi'ah of Al Muhammad have been known of their profoundity in the sciences of doctrines, due to their getting from the resources of Ahl al-Bayt Imams, who represent the pristine source and plentiful spring (of knowledge) of which all the Islamic cultures have drunk from the advent of Islam up to date". 282Here the speech of Dr. Hamid (Hafni) Dawud is over.
I believe that every truth-seeker should open the gate of critism and tajrih (sacrasm), as otherwise he will be curbed from entering it, exactly like the case of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jam'ah, who have exaggerated in believing in the justice of the Sahabah, without any verification or investigation into the their states, the fact that caused them to remain too far from the truth till the present time.
282. Al-Sahabah fi nazar al-Shi'ah al-'Imamiyyah, p.8 and onwards.
( 282 )


Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah have exaggerated in glorifying the Sahabah, and believing in their justice as a whole with no exception, exceeding in this all the bounds of reason and transmission, refuting every one criticizing them or denying their justice, beside charging him which debauchery. Here are some of their utterance to expose their remoteness from the Qur'anic concepts, the percepts confirmed by the Prophetic Sunnah, and those established by reason.
Al-'Imam al-Nawawi says in sharh Sahih Muslim: "The Sahabah are all alet of people and masters of the Ummah, superior, but the rabble has been caused by those who succeeded them, and fault has been in those ones". 283
Yahya ibn Ma'in says: "Every one insulting 'Uthman or Talhah or any of the Prophet's companions, is but an imposter not to be relied upon in writing (the hadith), and upon him be the curse of Allah and the angels and all people". 284
Al-Dhahabi also says: "Slandering any of the Sahabah is major sin, and anyone defaming or slandering them will go out of the fold of Islam and renegade the religion of Muslims".285
Once al-Qadi Abu Ya'la was asked about the rule in regard of that who insults Abu Bakr? He replied: He is a disbeliever, and then was asked: It is permissible to perform salat (salat al-mayyit) on him? He said: No. Then it was said: What to do for him while he witnesses that there is no god but Allah? He replied: Do not touch him with your hands, but push him with a stick till you bury him in his grave."286
283. Sahih Muslim, vol, viii, p.22.
284. Tadhhib al-tahdhib, vol, i, p.509.
285. Al-Dhahabi, Kitab al-kaba'ir pp. 233, 235.
286. Al-Sarim al-masalul, p.275.

( 283 )

Al-'Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: The best of people after the prophet (S) is Abu Bakr, then 'Umar, then 'Uthman and then 'Ali, who are rightly -guided caliphs, and mention their mischiefs, or defame them with any fault or blemish, and anyone doing this has to be chastised and punished, and not to be pardoned. He should be punished and asked to repent, if he repents it should be accepted from him, but if he insists he should be punihsed again and imprisoned till he dies or repents".
Al-Shaykh 'Ala' al-Din al-Tarablusi al-Hanafi says: ''Anyone insults any of the Prophtet's Companions, as Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, 'Ali, Mu'awiayah or 'Amr ibn al'As, and accusing them with deviation and kufr (disbelief), should be executed, but if he insults them with ordinary faults, he should be punished severely''.287
Dr. Hmid Hafni Dawud briefly reported the sayings of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-jama'ah saying: Ahl al-Sunnah view all the Sahabah to be just altogether, theough they differ in the degrees of 'adalah, and that whoever charges any Sahabi with impiety is a disblievers, and charges him with debauchery is a debauchee, and anyone defaming any Companion is as if he has defamed the Messenger of Allah (S).
The critics of Ahl al-Sunnah believe the it is not permissible to engage in debating the historical events, that took place between 'Ali and Mu'awiyah. And that of the Companions there is one who has interpreted and hit the mark, like 'Ali and whoever followed his example. There are some who have exerted their opinions but mistaken, like Mu'awiyah and 'A'ishah and those who followed their example. They believe too that it should be made a halt and abstaining, up to the limits of this judgement, without mentioning the disgraces. They have forbidden the slandering of Mu'awiyah due to his being a companion, with emphasis on forbidding to slander 'A'isha, due to her being the second Umm
287. Mu'in al-hukkam fima yataraddad bayn al-Kasmayn min al-'ahkam, p.187.
( 284 )

al-Mu'minin after Khadijah, and on account of her being the beloved of the Messenger of Allah. Debating any other matter should be abandoned and left to Allah, the Glorified. In this respect al-Hasan al-Basri and Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab say: "There are matters of which Allah has purified our hands and swords, so let us cleanse our tongues of them"
This being the quintessence of Ahl-al-Sunnah's opinions regarding the justice of the Companions and the things we should abstain from refering to about them".288 (The end of his speech).
Should any researcher intend to aquire more information in regard of the Sahabah, and who are the ones meant by this term as opined by Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jam'ah, he will realize that they give this honorary badge to anyone who saw the Prophet!
Al-Bakhari says in his Sahih: Anyone enjoyed the company of the Messenger of Allah (s) or saw him, is counted among his Companions.
Ahmed ibn Hanbal says: The best of people after the Messenger's Companions among the Badriyyun, is every one who has enjoyed his (s) compnay for a year or a month or one day, or who has seen him, and the degree he deserves is proportionate with the period of his company with him.289
Ibn Hajar, in the book al-'Isabah fi tamyiz al-Sahabah, says: "Every one who has narrated a hadith or a word from the Prophet, or seen him while believing in him, is counted among the Sahabah. Also (of the Sahabah) is any one who has met the Prophet with believing in him, and died as a Muslim, wheather his meeting with him being long or short, narrating from him or not, invading or not, or who has seen him without sitting with him, or has not seen him due to an excuse.290
The overwhelming majority of Ahl al-Sunnah had this view, and regard as a companion anyone who has seen the Prophet, or was born during his lifetime, even before attaining
288. Al-Sahabah fi nazar al-Shi'ah al-'Imamiyyah, pp. 8,9.
289. Al-Kifayah, p. 51; LTaliqh fuhum ahl al-'athar, p.2.
290. Ibn Hajar, al-'Isabah, vol.i, p.10.

( 285 )

puberty. The clearest evidence for this is their counting Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr among the Sahabah, though he was only three months old at the time of the Prophet's demise. Therefore Ibn Sa'd has classified the Sahabah into five classes in his famous book: Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd.
Al-Hakim al-Nisaburi, the author of al-Mustadrak, classifies them into twelve classes as follows:
First Class: Those who embraced Islam at Makkah before the migration, like al-Khulafa' al-Rashidun.
Second Class: Those who attended Dar al-Nadwah.
Third Class: Those who migrated to Abyssinia.
Fourth Class: Those who attended the First 'Aqabah.
Fifth Class: Those who attended the second 'Aqabah.
Sixth Class: Those who migrated to al-Madinah after the Messenger's migration to it.
Seventh Class: Those who witnessed Battle of Badr.
Eighth Class: Those who migrated after Badr and before al-Hudaybiyyah (peace Treaty).
Nineth Class: Those who attended Bay'at al-Ridwan.
Tenth Class: Those who migrated after al-Hudaybiyyah and before Conquest of Makkah, like Khalid ibn al-Walid and 'Amr ibn al-'As and others.
Eleventh Class: Those who were called by the Prophet (S) al-Tulaqa'.
Twelfth Class: The lads and children of the Sahabah who were born during the Prophet's lifetime, like Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr.
Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jam'ah concur concerning the justice of all the Sahabah, and the four schools of thought recognize their narrations without any hesitation, allowing no one to critize or defame them.
Needles to say that the men of jarh (criticism) and ta'dil (adjustment), undertaking the task of criticizing the traditionists and narrators, for sorting out and purifying the traditions, when intnending to talk about any Companion,

( 286 )

whatever be his class and his age at the time of the Prophet's demise, they abstain from doubting his narration despite all the suspicious raised against it, and its contradiction to reason ('aql) and chain of transmission (naql), claiming that the Sahabah are not to be subjected to criticism and sacrasm and all being just!
This is verily a manifested of which is reason is averse, human nature is repugnant, and not established by knowledge ('ilm), and I do not think the educated youth of today, may acknowledge such silly bida' (innovation).
It is known where from Ahl al-Sunnah have extracted such thoughts, that are estrange to the sprit of Islam, which has been established upon the scientific evidence and final argument. I wish that even one of them, can prove to me the alleged 'adalah of the Sahabah, through only one evidence from a scripture or Sunnah or logic!

( 287 )


The Companions are undiubtedly human beings, not infallible against error being like all ordinary people on account of duties and rights. They differ from ordinary people by the honour of the prophet's company, should they respect and give heed to it as it is worth. Otherwise they will be subject to multiple chastisenent, as Allah -- the Glorified-- has ordained, through His justice, not to chastise those who are far remote in the same way He does to the intimate near ones. Because it is not proper to resemble that who heard from the Prophet directly, sighting the Prophethood's light and miracles by his own eyes, taking the Prophet's instructions, with that who lived in the post-Prophet's time, never seeimg him or hearing from him directly.
Reason and onner conciousness prefer a contemporary man respecting and paying heed to the Book and Sunnah, over a companion who lived contemporaneously with the Prophet before Islam, enbracing Islam then and enjoying the Prophet's company with righteousness and piety throughout his life, but apostatized and turned back after his (S) death. Besides, it is fact determined by the Book of Allah and His Messenger's Sunnah, and by anyone having awareness of them, with with no suspicion in it or way out of it. The evidence for this can be found in the following holy verse:
''O ye wives of the Prophet! Whosoever of you committed manifest lewdness, the punishment for her will be doubled, and that is easy for Allah''.
The fact is that the Sahabah include all sort of people: the believer of perfect faith, the ascetic pious, the imprudent unaware of his better, the magnanimous just,

( 288 )

spiteful oppressors, rightful believers, unjust debauchees, active 'ulama', innovating ignorants, the sincere, hypocrites covenant-violaters, renegades and aposttates.
When knowing that the holy Qur'an and the Prophetic Sunnah and history, have all determined and demonstrated these matters expressly, then no consideration or worth hould be given to Ahl al-Sunnah's claim, that all the Sahabah being just, as this contradicts the Qur'an and Sunnah, disagreeing with history, 'aql (reason) and inner consciousness, being mere fanaticism and an allegation with no proof, and an illogical speech.
Any researcher in such matters may be amazed at the mentality of Ahl al-Sunnah, who contradict reason ('aql) traditions and history. When going through the roles played by the Umayyads, and means followed by the 'Abbasids for this belief-- ie respecting the Sahabah and believing in their 'adalah, with abstaining from criticizing them -- his amazement will vanish and it will be proved for him that the reason for their preventing any debate regarding the Sahabah lies in the fact that no cirticism or sacrcasm should be directed at the heinous mischiefs, they have perpetrated against Islam, Prophet of Islam and Islamic Ummah.
When Abu Sufyan, Mu'awiyah, Yazid, 'Amr ibn al-'As, Marwan ibn al-Hakam, al-Mugh i rah ibn Shu'bah and Bisr ibn Arta'ah, are counted as Sahabah ruling over the believers, so it was natural for them to prevent people from engaging in censuring the Sahabah, innovating false narrations to confirm their justice as a whole, in order that they be involved in these virtues, and no one may dare to censure them or disclose their (evil) acts.
Any Muslim does so, they charge him with impiety and zandaqah, issuing a fatwa (verdict) to kill him, forbidding performance of ritual washing and shrouding for him, but he should be pushed by a piece of wood till be buried in his grave, as mentioned before. When they (rulers) intend to slaughter

( 289 )

the Shi'ah, it is enough to accuse them with slandering the Sahabah, meaning for them censuring and sarcasting them for their mischiefs, an act entailing suppression and salying. They have even exceeded this limit, when they killed anyone daring to inquire about the meaning and conception of the hadith as in the following example:
Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi has reported in his Ta'rikh, saying: Someone has narrated, before Harun al-Rashid, a hadithsaid by Abu Hurayrah that: Moses has met Adam and said to him: Are you he one who caused us to go out from Paradise? A Qurashi man present thete said: Where has Adam met Moses? Thereat al-Rashid became furious saying: The rudeness and the sword for) a zindiq finding fault with the hadith of God's Messenger (S). 291 (Meaning that he ordered to cut his head).
When such a respectable man, attending al-Rashid's court, faces death through cutting his head by the sword, for just inquiring about the place in which Adam has met Moses, so never ask about any Shi'i calling Abu Hurayrah as a liar, based on the Sahabah's refuting his hadith, headed by 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. Hence any truth-seeker can realize all the contradictioons, indecencies, impossibilities and express disbelief with which the traditions being replete. Despite this fact, all the traditions have been recorded as being correct, and corvered with the garment of sacredness and honesty.
This is all to the fact that, criticism and sacrasm wereprohibited, entainling death and perditioon. Even that who inquires about the meanings to attain truth, is subject to slaying, if his intention is known to be investigating, for making him an example for others, to silencing all people.
They have decieved people that anyone doubting the hadith of Abu Hurayrah or any ordinary companion, has suspected the prophet's hadith, corvering thus the fabricated ahadith, innovated after the Prophet (S) demise, with the garb of sanctity, rendering them as indisputable facts.
291. Ta'rikh Baghdad, vol.xiv, p.7.
( 290 )

I have conferred with some of our 'ulama' that the Sahabah have not held such holiness, but they themselves used to raise doubts against the hadith of some others, when contradicting the Qur'an, and that 'Umar has censured Abu Hurayrah, forbidding him from narrating, charging him with lying (kidhab) and so on. But their ('ulama') reply has been that the Sahabah beingd entittled to suspect each other, but we are not in the position permitting us to disapprove or criticize them.
I say: O God's servants, they have charged each other with impiety, fought and killed each other?!
They say: All of them are mujtahidun, for the truthful be two towards, and for mistaken be only one reward, and we are not permitted to dispute their affairs. They have definately inherited this belief from their fathers and forefathers, generation from another, reiterating it like a parrot, without any pondering or verification.
No wonder to hear this, as their Imam al-Ghazzali himself has adopted this view and disseminated it among people, becoming thus hujjatul-Islam wal-Muslimin, as he said in his book: al-Mustafa: The ancestors and their successors (khalaf) hold that the Sahabah's ahadith being confirmed by God's straightening and appraising them in His Book, and such is our belief in them".
I wonder at al-Ghazzali, and Ahl al-Sunnah in general, for their reasoning with the Qur'an for proving the Sahabah's justice, while it never contains even one verse indicating this, but on the contrary, there are numerous verses denying their justice, disclosing their hidden facts and revealing their hypocrisy.
I have devoted a complete chapter for this subject in my book Fas'alu Ahl al-Dhikr (pp. 113-172).The truth-seekers can refer to it for realizing wha God and the Messenger said in their regard. Anyone, intending to know that the Sahabah have never dreamed of attaining the position given to them by

( 291 )

Ahl al-Sunnah, can go through the hadith and history books which are replete with their heinous acts, and their charging each other with impiety, and that many of them have been doubting themselves to be among the hypocrites.
Al-Bukhari reports in his Sahih that ibn Malikah has heard from thirty of the Prophet's Companions their expressing fear and doubt to be hypocrites, and none of them claiming his faith being as that of Gabriel. 292
Al-Ghazzali himself reports, in his book, that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab used to ask Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman wheather the Messenger of Allah has counted has counted him among the hypocrites, of whose names he (S) has appraised him (Hudhayfah).293
No consideration should be given to anyone claiming that hypocrites being not among the Sahabah, when knowing that the term they agreed upon is the one we heard before, being that everyone who saw the Prophet while believing in him is a Sahabah even without enjoying his company.
There is affectation also in their saying "while believing in him", since all thsoe who enjoyed the Prophet's company have uttered the Shadatayn (witnessing that there is no god but Allah), and the Prophet (S) has accepted of them that according to the appearance and Allah undertakes the hidden thoughts", never saying to any of them:You are hypocrites, I can't admit your Islam!
Therefore too, we observe the Prophet (S) call the hypocrites as "A shabi" (my companions) despited his awareness of their hypocrisy. The following is the proof:
Al-Bukhari has reported the 'Umar ibn al-Khattab has asked the Prophet (S) to cut the head of 'Abd Allah ibn Ubayy, the hypocrites (munafiq), saying: O Messenger of Allah, let me smite the neck of this munafiq! The Prophet (S) replied: Leave him, lest that people should be say that Muhammad kills his Companions. 294
292. Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. i, p.17.
293. Al-Ghazzali, Ihya' 'ulam al-Din, vol. i, p.129; Kanz al-'Ummal, vol. vii, p.24.
294. Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. vi, p. 65, kitab fada'il al-Qur'an, surat al-Munafiqin; Ta'rikh Ibn 'Asakir, vol. iv, p.97.

( 292 )

Some of the Sunni 'ulama' may try to convince us that the hypocrites being known, and we should not mix them with the Sahabah. But this being an impossible and infeasible thing, as the hypocrites are among the Sahabah whose hidden thougts are only known by Allah, and they used to pray, fast, worship God and seek the Prophet's nearness through all measn. Here is the evidence:
Al-Bukhari has reported in his Sahih, that 'Umar ibn Khattab asked the Messenger of Allah again to allow him to smite the neck of Dhu al-Khuwaysirah, when he said to the Prophet: Be just But the Prophet (S) said to him: Leave him, he has companions, whose salat may be scored with that of anyone of you, and also their fasting (siyam), and reciting the Qur'an that never exceed their collar -bones. They pass through the religion as the arrow passes through the fling. 295
I may be not exaggerating when saying that most of the Sahabah have not been far form hypocricy, as stated by the Book of Allah in a large number of verses, and exposed by the Prophet through many traditions. The examples from the Book of are the following verses:

-"Nay, but he bringth them the truth; and most of them are hatres of the Truth". (23:70)
-"The wandering Arabs are more hard in disbelief and hypocrisy..."(9:97)
-"...and among the townspeople of al-Madinah (there are some who) persist in hypocrisy whom thou (O Muhammad) knowest not". (9:97)
-"And among those around you of the wandering Arabs there are hypocrisy ..." (9:101)
It is noteworthy that some of Ahl al-Sunnah utmost conceal the facts, when they interpret "Arab " (the wandering Arabs) to be not among the Companions, but they being the Bedwins living on the skirts of
295. Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. iv, p. 179.
( 293 )

the Arab Peninsula.
We are told that 'Umar ibn al-khattab has, at the point of death, recommended his successor saying: ''I recommended you to be kind to the wandering Arabs, as they truly represent the origin of Arabs and the substance of Islam''. 296
When the Arabs and substance of Islam being more haed in disbelif amd hypocrisy, amd it is preponderant they should not know the limits of what is reveealed by Allah upon His Messenger, and Allah is Knower and wise, so no worth is left for the claim of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-jama'ah that all the Companions being just.
Elaborating more, and in order that the reseacher be assured that the wandering Arabs are themselves the Sahabah in general, as is stated by the holy Qur'an, when God --the Glorified -- says (after saying that the wandering Arabs are more hard in disbelief and hypocrisy):
''And of the wandering Arabs there is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day, the Messenger as acceptable offering in the sight of Allah. Lo! verily it is an acceptable offering them. Allah will bring them into His mercy. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful''.(9:99)
Concerning what is determined by the Messenger of Allah is the holy Prophetic Sunnah, we can refer to his saying: My Companions will be taken to fire, whereat I say: My God, these are my Companions! Then he is told: You have no knowledge of what they have done after you. And I say: Distant be whoever has alered after me, I never see him to be delivered put of them but like the negligents of bounties.297 There are more traditions we have not mentioned due to brevity. Our intention is not going through the biography of the Sahabah for raising suspicion against their justice, as history is sufficient and has testified aginst some of them, their perpetrating adultery, imbibing wine, giving false testimony,
296. Ibid, vol, iv, p.206.
297. Ibid, vol. vii, p. 209. bab al-hawd.

( 294 )

apostasy, violting the rights of the innocent, and betraying the Ummah. But we want to expose that the allegation of adopting the justice of all the Sahabah, is no more than a fancifull legend created by Ahl al-Sunnah, for concealing the acts of their masters and magnates among the Sahabah, who have innovated in God's religion and perverted its its rules through their fabricated heresies. Besides, we intend to reveal once more, that Ahl al-Sunnah have, through believing in the justice of all the Sahabah, disclosed their real identity, which being holding affection toward the hypocrited, and adopting their heresies, with which they stive to restore people to the Pre-Islamic period (Jahiliyyah)
As Ahl al-Sunnah have forbidden their followers from sarcasting and doubting the Sahabah, closing the door of ijtihad from the era of the Umayyad caliphs and and creation of creeds so the followers have inherited this doctrine, bequeathing it to their sons generation after generation. Till the present time Ahl al-Sunnah prevent people from engaging in dispute about the Sahabah, showing pleasure with all of them, and charging with impiety whoever criticize any of them.
We conclude that the Shi'ah, the followers of Ahl al-Bayt, give the Sahabah their proper positions, showing pleasure with their pious ones, proclaiming freedom from obligation of the hypocrites and debauches, the enemies of Allah and His Messenger. They proved thus to be the followers of the true Sunnah, since they loved God's beloved and His Messenger among the Sahabah, and proclaimed freedom from enemies of God and His Messenger.