4 - AHL AL-SUNNAH AND AFFECTION
FOR AHL AL-BAYT
It is quite definite for evry Muslim that Allah-the Glorious -has made loving Ahl al-Bayt incumbent upon all Muslims in return for bestowing over them the Muhammadan Message with all the blessings implied in it, when He said: "Say (O Muhammad unto mankind): I ask of you no fee therefor, save loving kindness among kinsfolk". (42:23)
This holy verse is revealed for enjoying upon Muslims the loving kindness for the Pure Progeny, who are 'Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, as recorded in more than thirty sources of Ahl al-Sunnah .301 Al-'Imam al-Shafi said in this regrd:
O the Messenger 's Household, your love
Is a prescription revealed in the Qur'an
So if their love is revealed in the Qur'a, enjoying it upon all worships as admitted by al-'Imam al-Shafi !? And if their affection (mawaddah) is the reward for the Muhammadan Message, as expressed in the Book, and ritual for seeking God's nearness, what is the matter then with Ahl al-Sunnah, who never give any weight for Ahl al-Bayt, regarding them as lower in position than the Sahabah?302
We have to ask, or rather challenge, Ahl al-Sunnah to refer us even one Qur'anic verse, or one Prophetic hadith, enjoying upon Muslims the loving for Abu Bakr or 'Umar or 'Uthman, or any of the Sahabah?!
It is too far from them, nothing for the sort can be found in God's Book or His Messenger 's Sunnah, while many verses and traditions refer to the lofty position of Ahl al-Bayt, preferring them over all mankind.
From the holy Qur'an, we suffice with the verse of affection, which we are discussing, the verse of malediction (mubahalah), the verse of seeking benediction upon the
301. Refer, in this respect, to the book Ma'a al-Sadiqin, by the author,
302. All of Ahl al-Sunnah believe in presence of Abu Bakr and 'Umar and 'Uthman over 'Ali ibn Abi Talib. As 'Ali being the Master of the 'Itrah and the best of Ahl al-Bayt after the Prophet (S), so Ahl al-Sunnah regard ahl al-Bayts position to be after that of the three companions, konwn among them as al-khulaf' al-Rashidun.
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Prophet and his Houehold, the verse of removing uncleaness and purity, the verse of guardianship, and the verse of electing and inheriting the Book.
From the Prophetic Sunnah, we suffice with the tradition of Two Heavy Things, the tradition of Ark, the tradition of position, the tradition of complete prayer, the tradition of stars, the tradition of city of knowledge, and the tradition of ''the Imams agfter me are twelve''.
Needless to say that one-third of the Qur'an is revealed on aappraising and mentioning the excellences of Ahl al-Bayt, as emphasized by some Companions like Ibn 'Abbas. We never claim that one-third of the Prophetic Sunnah is fucussed on dignifying and glorifying Ahl al-Bayt, with exposing their virtues for people, as pointed out by al'-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
We siffice from the Qur'an and the Sunnah with the examples we have cited from the sihah of Ahl al-Sunnah, for indicating the preference of Ahl al-Bayt over all other people.
Having a glance at the beliefs, books of Ahl al-Sunnah and their historical conduct toward Ahl al-Bayt, we can clearly recognize that they have chosen opposition and hostility against Ahl al-Bayt (A) unsheathing their sworfd for fighting them, dedicating thrir wrtings for sarcasting and degrading them, and elevating the position of their enemies and opponents.
One evidence is sufficieng for providing the final hujjah (argument), which is the fact, that Ahl al-Sunnah were not known but in the 2nd Hijrah year as a reaction againt the Shi'ah, who have befriended and devoted themselves to Ahl al-Bayt, while Ahl al-Sunnah's fiqh and worships and all beliefs are not taken or derived from the Prophetic Sunnah reported from Ahl al- Bayt.303
Despite the fact, that Ahl al-Bayt are better aware of what is in it (house), who are the Prophet's Offspring and 'Itrah, being superior in knowledge and conduct, keeping pace
303. Suppose they be as they claim nowadays by saying: "We are more entittled to 'Ali and Ahl al-Bayt, than the Shi'ah", so they are asked as to why have their 'ulama' and creeds leaders forsaken Ahl al-Bayt's fiqh, neglecting it absouletely? Why have they follwed creeds (madhahib) innovated by them with no warrant revealed from Allah, Who said in His Book: "Lo! those of mankind who have the best claim to Abraham are those who followed him..." (3:68). That is, those who did not follow him have no claim to him, as is expressely manifest.
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with the Ummah's history throughout three centuries, undertaking the spiritual and religious Imamate through the Twelve Imams among whom no disagreement is found. But Ahl al-Sunnah follow devotedly the four schools, which were created only during the third Hijrah centut, among which there is great incongruity, dicarding Ahl al- Bayt and declaring hostility against them, and rather warring against their follower till the present time.
Wishing to have another evidence, we have to analyze Ahl al-Sunnah's stance in regard of 'Ashura' Day memory (tenth of Muharram), the omnious day, in which one of the pillars of Islam was demolished, through slaughtering the Master of Heaven's youth, with the Prophet's Pure Progeny and his rightous companions.
First: Their stance toward the killers of al-Husayn is that of consenting, rejoycing and backing nature. No wonder of this, as it is Ahl al-Sunnah who have slain al-'Imam al-Husayn, being sufficed with knowing that, the army commander assigned by Ibn Ziyad with the task of killing al-Husayn, was 'Umar ibn Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas. Therefore Ahl al-Sunnah declare their pleasure with all the sahabah, including who killed al-Husayn and their partners, confirming their ahadith. Some of them have even considered al-'Imam al-Husayn as a Kharijite (rebel), since he revolted against Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah!!
Moreover, 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar, the faqih of Ahl al-Sunnah, has sworn allegiance unto Yazid ibn Mul'awiyah, forbidding anyone from revolting against him, saying: "We are with that of who conquers".
Second: Throughout history, from 'Ashura' Day up to date, Ahl al-Sunnah celeberate this day as a festival ('Id), taking out the zakat of their properties, giving their children some money, indicating its being a day of blessings and graces.
They never satisfy with this, but even nowadays they embark on reviling the Shi'ah, and criticizing their weeping
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over al-Husayn. In some Islamic countries they even prevent the Shi'ah from holding mourning ceremonies ('aza'), assailing them with weapons, massacring them, with the plea of fighting the bida' (heresies).
In fact they are only fulfilling the plot of the Umayyad and 'Abbasid rulers, who did their utmost to exterminate the memory of 'Ashura' to the extent that they have dug out al-Husayn's grave, effecting its traces, and preventing people from paying homage to it.They presently strive from uprooting the revival of that occassion, lest that people-- unaware of truth of Ahl al-Bayt --should realize the facts, whereat the evil intentions of their masters and chiefs be revealed, and people come to distinguish between Truth and falsehood, and the believer from the debauchee.
Again we realize that the Shi'ah are the true followers of the Sunnah, due to their applying it, even in lementing and weeping over Abu 'Abd Allah al-Husayn, as there are established narrations that the Prophet (S) has wept over al-Husayn, when being apprised by Gabriel of his being slaughtering in Karbala, 'fifty years before the tragedy.
It is exposed also that Ahl al-Sunnah 's celeberating 'Ashura' is due to their following the Sunnah of Yazid and the Umayyads, who celeberated their triumph over al-Husayn, and quelling his revolution, which used to threaten their sovereignty, eradicating the turmoil as they allege.
We read in history book, that Yazid and the Umayyads used to organize a splendid festival, ttill the arrival of al-Husayn's head and captives (sabaya) of Ahl al-Bayt, whereat they rejoyced and gloated over the Messenger of Allah, (S)chantingwith poems and songs.
The bad-reputed 'ulama' among Ahl al-Sunnah have then sought ttheir nearness, through composing ahadith about the honour of that day, claiming its being the day of God's accepting Adam's repentance, and in which the Ark of Noah came to rest at (the Mount ) al-Judi, and fire was coolness and
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peace for Abraham, and Joseph left the Prison and Jacob recorvered his sight, and Moses overcame Pharoah, and in which a table spread with food was sent down from heaven upon Jesus.
Such are the narrations reiterated by the 'ulama' of Ahl al-Sunnah, and their heads from over the pulpits, which were fabricated by the impostors disguinshing under the cloak of 'ulama' seeking approachment to the rulers with all means, selling out their Hereafter against the world, becoming thus of the losers whose commerce did not appear.
They have vigorously falsified the facts, by narrating that the Prophet's migration to al-Madinah,coincided with the Day of Ashura, whereat he found of the jews of al-Madinah fasting.Then he asked them about the reason for that, they replied: In such a day Moses triumphed over Pharoah. He said: We have better claim to Moses than you.Then he issued his orders that Muslims should fast the two days of Tasu'a and 'Ashura', for contradicting the Jews.
This is being an express lie, since we never heard of a festival ('Id) celeberated by the comtemporary Jews, which they call 'Ashura'
May we ask our Lord (the Glorified), that how has He made that day a blessing for all His prophets and messengers, from Adam up to Jesus, except Muhammad, for whom this day was a misfortune, tragedy and bad omen, as his Progeny were slaughtered like sheep, and his daughters were taken as captives? The reply will come such: "He will not be questioned as to that which He doeth, but they will be questioned ". (21:23) Allah says too:
"And whose disputeth with thee concerning him, after the knowledge which hath come unto thee, say (to him): Come! We will summon our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves, then we will pray humby (to our lord) and (solemly) invoke the curse of Allah upon thsoe who lie". (3:61)
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5 - AHL AL-SUNNAH AND THE
After expounding in a previous chapter the revelation of the verse (of prayer) with its interperetation by the Messenger himself, and the way of sending the complete salat, and forbidding the multilated one which is never accepted by Allah, still there is strong persistence by Ahl al-Sunnah upon sending the multilated benedictionin order that no mention is made for Al Muhammad within the salat. But when being obliged to mention them they attach the Sahabah to them, and when you say before any of them: May God's benediction by upon him and His Houshold, immediately he realizes your being a Shi'i, as full prayer has turned to be a motto for the Shi'ah exclusively.
This being a clear-cut reality, which I exprienced myself, as I used to recognize the writer's Shi'ism through his saying, after mentioning the name of Muhammad, (may God's peace and benediction be upon him), reveals his being a Sunni. So also is the case with the name of Ali, as (peace be upon him) indicates the writer's Shi'ism, while the phrase (karram Allah wajhah) indicates his Sunnism.
The complete salat indicates the Shi'ah's devoted adherence to Prophetic Sunnah, while Ahl al-Sunnah have contradicted the Prophet's commandations, discarding them, as they alwasys send the the multilated prayer, and when obliged to add the word (Al), they attach to it the words (and all his Companions) with no exception, for the sake of depriving Ahl al-Bayt of any virtue or merit.
All this being a consequence of the Umayyad's stand and hostility toward Ahl al-Bayt, to the extent that they have substituted sending benediction upon them (Ahl al-Bayt ) by
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cursing them from the pulpits, beside compelling people to follow this pracitice through intimidation and temptation means. Whereas Ahl al-Sunnah could not reach this exent of reviling and cursing for Ahl al-Bayt, as this would disclose thier real nature before all Muslims, entailing proclamation of anipathy against them.They have concealed their enmity and hatred, inside their hearts, against Ahl al-Bayt, striving to extinguish among the Sahabah, creating for them false virtues.
This is indicated clearly thruogh Ahl al-Sunnah's abstaining from deploring Mu'awiyah and the Companions who continued to curse Ahl al-Bayt for eighty years, but rather they decalare pleasure toward all of them, charging with disblief anyone finding fault with any of the Sahabah, or uncorvering his crimes, issueing a fatwa to kill that person.
Some other fabricators tried to attach to the full prayer--taught by the Prophet to his Companions --another part, surming that this would belittle Ahl al-Bayt, by saying: Say O God send Your benediction upon Muhammad and his Household and wives and offspring. It is quite clear for every researcher that this part was added for including 'A'isha within al-Bayt .
Our reply to them is: Should we persume, for argument's sake, the veracity of the narrations, admitting the mothers of believers as included in it (prayer), the Sahabah then have nothing to do with this matter; and I challenge any Muslim in being able to give any evidence from the Qur'an or Sunnah indicating such a meaning.The stars in the sky are more accessible to him than this.
This is decisive commandment in the Qur'an and Sunnah, inviting all the Sahabah and those succeeding them from among Muslims, to call for ( divine) blessing upon Muhammad and his Household. This, in itself being a sublime rank outstripping all other ranks, and a lofty virtue no other one can attain . All Companions, including Abu Bakr, 'Umar
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and 'Uthman, and all Muslims all over the world, numbering hundreds of millions, say in their prayer, in tashahhud: O God, send Your blessing upon Muhammad and Al Muhammad! Allah -Glorified -shall never accept their salat if it be devoid of this phrase, and it will be regarded invalid.
Al'-Imam al-Shafi 'i has denoted this when saying:
It suffieces as the greatest honour bestowed on you.
That his prayer is as nothing who does not salute you.
Due to this verse, al-Shafi'i was accused of tashayyu', as the stooges of the Umayyads and 'Abbasids accuse with this charge anyone asking blessing upon Muhammad and his Household, or praising them with poetry, or referring to any of their excellences.
We conclude here that the Shi'ah are the true followers of the Prophetic Sunnah, and their salat is complete and accepted, even in the opinion of their opponents. Whereas Ahl al-Sunnah have expressly contradicted the Prophetic Sunnah, and their salat is mutilated and unaccepted even in the opinion of their imams and 'ulama'.
''Or are they jealous of mankind because of that which Allah of His bounty hath bestwd upon them? For we bestwed upon the house of Abrham (of old) the Scripture nd wisdom, and We bestowed pm them mighty kingdom''.(4:54)
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THE PROPHET'S INFALLIBILITY AND ITS
IMPACT ON AHL AL-SUNNAH
Muslims differ in regard of the notion of 'ismah (infallibility), which is in fact the only factor obligating all Muslims to adhere to the Prophet's decrees indisputably, if they believe that he never speaks of (his own) desire, it is naught save an inspiration that is inspired. So they should not believe that the Prophet's sayings and decrees are only of his ijtihad, if not being from a Qur'an that is revealed.
If they hold such a belief, submitting that everything is Allah's and the Prohet's being only a medium for propagation and exposition, so they are Shi'ah and many Sahabah were known of holding this belief, at the head of whom being al-'Imam 'Ali (A), who never changed a bit in the Prophet's Sunnah due to its being revealed by Allah, and it being impermissible to exert poinion or ijtihad against God's ordinances.
Should they believe in non-infallibility of the Prophet in his utterances and acts, and that 'ismah is exclusive for the Qur'an, and whatever other than is a human being who may be mistaken or right, then they prove to be Ahl al-Sunnah, permitting ijtihad of Sahabah and 'ulama'against the Prophet's sayings and rules, in a way that complies with public interest, and be according to the circumstances required by the opinion of the then ruler.
It is self-evident that al-Khulafa' al-Rashidun (except al'Imam 'Ali) have practised ijtihad with their opinions aginst the Prophetic Sunnah, and gone farther by practising ijtihad against the Qur'anic text (nusus), rendering their opinion then to binding rules to be followed by Ahl al-Sunnah, and imposing them upon Muslims.
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We referred to the ijtihadatof abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman in the books ''ma 'a al-Sadiqin and Fas'alu Ahl al-Dhikr, and a separate Book may be dedicated for them later on God-willing.
We have recognized that Ahl al-Sunnah own many sources beside the two main sources of Islamic legislation (Qur'an and Sunnah), including Sinnat al-Shaykhayn (Abu Bakr and 'Umar), and ijtihad of the Companion, due to their belief in non-infallibility of the Prophet (S), and that he used to exert his opinion, which being approved by some Companions who would corrrect his errors. Thus it is esposed that the real purpose intended by Ahl al-Sunnah behind claiming of the Prophet's non-fallibility, lies in their pernission to contradict and disobey him knowingly or unknowingly. Obeying the non-infallible being non-obligatory by legislation (shar') or reason ('aql), and we are not to obey him as long as we believe in his being mistaken, as how can we obey the error?
On the other side we come to know that when the Shi'ah adopt the Prophet's absolute 'ismah, they intend to make obeying him obligatory due to his enjoying immunity against error, so it is impermissible to contradict or disobey him, and whoever does so, has in fact disobeyed Allah, the fact referred to in many verses the Qur'an:
-- ''And whatsoever the Messenger giveth you, take it. And whatsover he forbiddeth, abstain (from it)''.(59:7)
-- ''And obey Allah and the Messenger...''(3:132)
-- ''Say (O Muhammad to mankind ): If ye love Allah, follow me, Allah will love you...''(3:31)
Beside many verses obligating upon Muslims to obey the Prophet, never comtradicting him due to his being ma'sum, not communicating but that which is ordained by Allah - the Glorified.
This nedessarily indicates the Shi'ah's being the true
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followers of the Prohetic Sunnah due to their belief in its ismah and obligation of following it. It indicates also the Ahl al-Sunnah's remoteness from the Prophetic Sunnah, due to their belief in its being mistaken and permissibility of contradicting it.
''Mankind were one community, and Allah sent (unto them) prophets as bearers of good tidings and as warners, and revealed therewith the Scriptuer with the truth that it might judge between mankind concerning that wherein they differed. And only those unto whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it, after clear proofs had come unto them, through hatred one of another. And Allah by His Will guided those who believe unto the truth of that concerning which they differed. Allah guideth whom He will unto a straight path''.(2:213)